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The effect of change-in-control covenants on takeovers: Evidence from leveraged buyouts

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  • Billett, Matthew T.
  • Jiang, Zhan
  • Lie, Erik

Abstract

Change-in-control covenants first became commonplace towards the end of the takeover wave in the 1980s. We examine merger and acquisition activity from 1991 to 2006 to see how such covenant protection influences the wealth effects and probability of takeovers. Examining a sample of leveraged buyouts (LBOs) we find bondholders with such covenant protection experience average wealth effects of 2.30% while unprotected bonds experience -Â 6.76% upon the announcement of an LBO. Furthermore, we document that the existence of bondholder change-in-control covenants cuts the firm's probability of being targeted in an LBO in half. We also find that change-in-control covenants reduce the probability of being targeted in non-LBO takeovers, but the effect appears less dramatic.

Suggested Citation

  • Billett, Matthew T. & Jiang, Zhan & Lie, Erik, 2010. "The effect of change-in-control covenants on takeovers: Evidence from leveraged buyouts," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 1-15, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:corfin:v:16:y:2010:i:1:p:1-15
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    Cited by:

    1. Maul, D. & Schiereck, D., 2016. "The bond event study methodology since 1974," Publications of Darmstadt Technical University, Institute for Business Studies (BWL) 80723, Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute for Business Studies (BWL).
    2. Chen, Jun & King, Tao-Hsien Dolly & Wen, Min-Ming, 2015. "Do joint ventures and strategic alliances create value for bondholders?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 247-267.
    3. Baran, Lindsay C. & King, Tao-Hsien Dolly, 2010. "Going private transactions, bondholder returns, and wealth transfer effects," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1856-1872, August.
    4. repec:eee:corfin:v:44:y:2017:i:c:p:331-352 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Billett, Matthew T. & Yang, Ke, 2016. "Bond tender offers in mergers and acquisitions," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 128-141.
    6. Boone, Audra L. & Mulherin, J. Harold, 2011. "Do private equity consortiums facilitate collusion in takeover bidding?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 1475-1495.
    7. Wilson, Nick & Wright, Mike & Siegel, Donald S. & Scholes, Louise, 2012. "Private equity portfolio company performance during the global recession," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 193-205.
    8. Renneboog, Luc & Vansteenkiste, Cara, 2017. "Leveraged Buyouts : A Survey of the Literature," Discussion Paper 2017-015, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.

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