Impact of roof integrated PV orientation on the residential electricity peak demand
Peak electricity demand has been an issue in the Desert Southwest region of the US, due to extreme summer temperatures. To address this issue, a consortium was formed between the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Pulte Homes, and NV Energy. An energy efficient residential community was developed by the team in Las Vegas with approximately 200 homes to study substation-level peak reduction strategies. A summer peak reduction of more than 65%, between 1:00PM and 7:00PM, compared to code standard housing developments is the targeted goal of the project. Approximately 50 homes are already built and some are occupied. The energy performances of the homes have been monitored and are presented in this paper. Several peak electric load reduction strategies such as energy efficiency in buildings, roof integrated photovoltaics (PV) and direct load control have been applied. Though all the homes in the developed community are installed with 1.8kWp PV systems, the orientation of the PV system depends on the building orientation. Focus of this paper is to find the impact of PV orientation on the peak load from a building. In addition, different time-of-use (TOU) energy pricing options are offered by the local electrical utility company. Hence it is important to find an optimal pricing option for each building. A computer model has been developed for one of the homes in the new development using building energy simulation code, ENERGY-10. Calculations on the PV orientations have shown that a south and 220° (i.e. 40° west of due south) orientations are economically optimal for homes enrolled to flat electricity pricing schedule and time of use pricing respectively. As predicted by the simulations, the energy efficiency methods in the home have decreased the total annual energy by 38% compared to a code standard home of the same size. Further, the energy efficiency methods in the building coupled with a 220° oriented PV and 1.1°C increase in thermostat temperature for three hours (from 3:00 to 6:00PM) reduced the peak energy demand by 62% compared to a code standard building of the same size. Battery storage is the other option that will be considered in the project at a later time which is expected to carry the project well beyond its peak reduction goals.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Volume (Year): 92 (2012)
Issue (Month): C ()
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/405891/description#description|
|Order Information:|| Postal: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/405891/bibliographic|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Geller, Howard & Harrington, Philip & Rosenfeld, Arthur H. & Tanishima, Satoshi & Unander, Fridtjof, 2006. "Polices for increasing energy efficiency: Thirty years of experience in OECD countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 556-573, March.
- Mondol, Jayanta Deb & Yohanis, Yigzaw G & Norton, Brian, 2009. "Optimising the economic viability of grid-connected photovoltaic systems," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 86(7-8), pages 985-999, July.
- Zogou, Olympia & Stapountzis, Herricos, 2011. "Energy analysis of an improved concept of integrated PV panels in an office building in central Greece," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(3), pages 853-866, March.
- Kumar, Rakesh & Rosen, Marc A., 2011. "A critical review of photovoltaic–thermal solar collectors for air heating," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(11), pages 3603-3614.
- Sadineni, Suresh B. & France, Todd M. & Boehm, Robert F., 2011. "Economic feasibility of energy efficiency measures in residential buildings," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(11), pages 2925-2931.
- Ashok, S. & Banerjee, R., 2003. "Optimal cool storage capacity for load management," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 115-126.
- Lam, Joseph C. & Tsang, C.L. & Li, Danny H.W. & Cheung, S.O., 2005. "Residential building envelope heat gain and cooling energy requirements," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 30(7), pages 933-951.
- Florides, G. A. & Tassou, S. A. & Kalogirou, S. A. & Wrobel, L. C., 2002. "Measures used to lower building energy consumption and their cost effectiveness," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 73(3-4), pages 299-328, November.
- Zhou, Guobing & Yang, Yongping & Xu, Hong, 2011. "Performance of shape-stabilized phase change material wallboard with periodical outside heat flux waves," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(6), pages 2113-2121, June.
- Leckner, Mitchell & Zmeureanu, Radu, 2011. "Life cycle cost and energy analysis of a Net Zero Energy House with solar combisystem," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 232-241, January.
- Gieseler, U.D.J. & Heidt, F.D. & Bier, W., 2004. "Evaluation of the cost efficiency of an energy efficient building," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 369-376.
- Li, D.H.W. & Lam, J.C. & Wong, S.L., 2005. "Daylighting and its effects on peak load determination," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 30(10), pages 1817-1831.
- Tiwari, G.N. & Mishra, R.K. & Solanki, S.C., 2011. "Photovoltaic modules and their applications: A review on thermal modelling," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(7), pages 2287-2304, July.
- Hasnain, Syed Mahmood & Alabbadi, Naif Mohammed, 2000. "Need for thermal-storage air-conditioning in Saudi Arabia," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 65(1-4), pages 153-164, April.
- Chow, T.T., 2010. "A review on photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar technology," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 365-379, February.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:92:y:2012:i:c:p:204-210. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shamier, Wendy)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.