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Cooling-load prediction by the combination of rough set theory and an artificial neural-network based on data-fusion technique


  • Hou, Zhijian
  • Lian, Zhiwei
  • Yao, Ye
  • Yuan, Xinjian


A novel method integrating rough sets (RS) theory and an artificial neural network (ANN) based on data-fusion technique is presented to forecast an air-conditioning load. Data-fusion technique is the process of combining multiple sensors data or related information to estimate or predict entity states. In this paper, RS theory is applied to find relevant factors to the load, which are used as inputs of an artificial neural-network to predict the cooling load. To improve the accuracy and enhance the robustness of load forecasting results, a general load-prediction model, by synthesizing multi-RSAN (MRAN), is presented so as to make full use of redundant information. The optimum principle is employed to deduce the weights of each RSAN model. Actual prediction results from a real air-conditioning system show that, the MRAN forecasting model is better than the individual RSAN and moving average (AMIMA) ones, whose relative error is within 4%. In addition, individual RSAN forecasting results are better than that of ARIMA.

Suggested Citation

  • Hou, Zhijian & Lian, Zhiwei & Yao, Ye & Yuan, Xinjian, 2006. "Cooling-load prediction by the combination of rough set theory and an artificial neural-network based on data-fusion technique," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 83(9), pages 1033-1046, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:83:y:2006:i:9:p:1033-1046

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Dotzauer, Erik, 2002. "Simple model for prediction of loads in district-heating systems," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 73(3-4), pages 277-284, November.
    2. Clemen, Robert T., 1989. "Combining forecasts: A review and annotated bibliography," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 5(4), pages 559-583.
    3. Li, Renpu & Wang, Zheng-ou, 2004. "Mining classification rules using rough sets and neural networks," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 157(2), pages 439-448, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Dongjun Suh & Seongju Chang, 2012. "An Energy and Water Resource Demand Estimation Model for Multi-Family Housing Complexes in Korea," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 5(11), pages 1-20, November.
    2. repec:eee:appene:v:195:y:2017:i:c:p:222-233 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Wong, S.L. & Wan, Kevin K.W. & Lam, Tony N.T., 2010. "Artificial neural networks for energy analysis of office buildings with daylighting," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 551-557, February.
    4. Zhao, Hai-xiang & Magoulès, Frédéric, 2012. "A review on the prediction of building energy consumption," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(6), pages 3586-3592.
    5. Petersen, Steffen & Svendsen, Svend, 2011. "Method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(12), pages 4597-4606.
    6. repec:eee:appene:v:204:y:2017:i:c:p:181-205 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Lazos, Dimitris & Sproul, Alistair B. & Kay, Merlinde, 2014. "Optimisation of energy management in commercial buildings with weather forecasting inputs: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 587-603.
    8. Mohanraj, M. & Jayaraj, S. & Muraleedharan, C., 2012. "Applications of artificial neural networks for refrigeration, air-conditioning and heat pump systems—A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 1340-1358.
    9. Ji, Ying & Xu, Peng & Duan, Pengfei & Lu, Xing, 2016. "Estimating hourly cooling load in commercial buildings using a thermal network model and electricity submetering data," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 169(C), pages 309-323.
    10. Fazeli, Reza & Davidsdottir, Brynhildur & Hallgrimsson, Jonas Hlynur, 2016. "Residential energy demand for space heating in the Nordic countries: Accounting for interfuel substitution," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 1210-1226.
    11. Manfren, Massimiliano & Caputo, Paola & Costa, Gaia, 2011. "Paradigm shift in urban energy systems through distributed generation: Methods and models," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(4), pages 1032-1048, April.
    12. repec:eee:energy:v:139:y:2017:i:c:p:18-30 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Kusiak, Andrew & Li, Mingyang, 2010. "Cooling output optimization of an air handling unit," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(3), pages 901-909, March.
    14. repec:eee:rensus:v:81:y:2018:i:p1:p:1192-1205 is not listed on IDEAS


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