IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Evaluation of mitigation strategies for nitrate leaching on pasture-based dairy systems


  • Vogeler, I.
  • Beukes, P.
  • Burggraaf, V.


Dairy farms are under pressure to increase productivity while reducing environmental impacts. We used the DairyNZ Whole Farm Model (WFM) and APSIM to evaluate the effect of mitigation strategies within an efficient farm (EF) in the Waikato region, NZ, on these targets. Mitigation strategies compared with the baseline farm (BF) included the use of fewer more efficient cows, low nitrogen (N) feed supplements, loafing pads, less N fertiliser and nitrification inhibitor (DCD). To encompass climate affects three different years with average, high and low annual rainfall were modelled. The WFM predicted number of urinations and urinary N loads deposited during individual grazing events were used as an input for APSIM to simulate N leaching from urine patches, as well as from non-urinated areas. Results were aggregated to obtain total N leached on a paddock and farm scale. For all 3years, farm averaged N leaching was lower, by 20–55%, in the EF compared with the BF farm. DCD reduced leaching in two of the 3years by 12% and 15%. N leaching was lowest for N deposited in the wet year and highest for the dry year. Milk production was consistently greater for the EF compared to the BF, with an increase in milksolids (MS)/ha ranging from 8% in the wet, to 17% in the dry year.

Suggested Citation

  • Vogeler, I. & Beukes, P. & Burggraaf, V., 2013. "Evaluation of mitigation strategies for nitrate leaching on pasture-based dairy systems," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 115(C), pages 21-28.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:agisys:v:115:y:2013:i:c:p:21-28
    DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2012.09.012

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Berntsen, J. & Petersen, B. M. & Jacobsen, B. H. & Olesen, J. E. & Hutchings, N. J., 2003. "Evaluating nitrogen taxation scenarios using the dynamic whole farm simulation model FASSET," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 76(3), pages 817-839, June.
    2. McCall, D. G. & Bishop-Hurley, G. J., 2003. "A pasture growth model for use in a whole-farm dairy production model," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 76(3), pages 1183-1205, June.
    3. Probert, M. E. & Dimes, J. P. & Keating, B. A. & Dalal, R. C. & Strong, W. M., 1998. "APSIM's water and nitrogen modules and simulation of the dynamics of water and nitrogen in fallow systems," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 1-28, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:agisys:v:156:y:2017:i:c:p:126-138 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. repec:eee:agisys:v:154:y:2017:i:c:p:78-89 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Doole, Graeme J. & Romera, Alvaro J., 2015. "Trade-offs between profit, production, and environmental footprint on pasture-based dairy farms in the Waikato region of New Zealand," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 141(C), pages 14-23.

    More about this item


    Modelling; Whole Farm Model; APSIM; N leaching; DCD;


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:agisys:v:115:y:2013:i:c:p:21-28. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.