An empirical analysis of fatal crimes against environmental and land activists
This paper demonstrates the presence of an inverted U-shaped relationship between fatal crimes against environmental and land activists and income per capita for a group of 34 countries from 2002-2013. Using panel data estimation techniques, the results are robust to controlling for rule of law, control of corruption, deforestation, homicide rates, and natural resource dependence. We thus provide evidence of a relationship between economic growth and the safety of environmental activists, where at some point in country's economic development environmental murders decrease with additional income. Furthermore, our results offer support to the findings of the Fifth Assessment Report of Working Group II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change which imply that physical security in the context of environmental disputes is likely an environmental amenity which is increasingly in demand, especially as incomes grow. Additional results suggest that the background level of fatal crimes (excluding environmental murders) is positively related to environmental murders and the relationship between increased forest cover and environmental murders can be positive or negative thereby confounding forestry-based policy recommendations.
Volume (Year): 36 (2016)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
|Contact details of provider:|| |
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Soares, Rodrigo R., 2004. "Development, crime and punishment: accounting for the international differences in crime rates," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 155-184, February.
- Ole Theisen & Nils Gleditsch & Halvard Buhaug, 2013. "Is climate change a driver of armed conflict?," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 117(3), pages 613-625, April.
- Araujo, Claudio & Bonjean, Catherine Araujo & Combes, Jean-Louis & Combes Motel, Pascale & Reis, Eustaquio J., 2009.
"Property rights and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon,"
Elsevier, vol. 68(8-9), pages 2461-2468, June.
- Claudio ARAUJO & Catherine ARAUJO BONJEAN & Jean-Louis COMBES & Pascale COMBES MOTEL & Eustaquio J. REIS, 2008. "Property rights and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon," Working Papers 200820, CERDI.
- Claudio Araujo & Catherine Araujo Bonjean & Jean-Louis Combes & Pascale Combes Motel & E. Reis, 2009. "Property rights and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon," Post-Print hal-00387493, HAL.
- Claudio Araujo & Catherine Araujo Bonjean & Jean-Louis Combes & Pascale Combes Motel & Eustaquio J. Reis, 2011. "Property rights and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon," Working Papers halshs-00556699, HAL.
- Robert T. Deacon, 1994. "Deforestation and the Rule of Law in a Cross-Section of Countries," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 70(4), pages 414-430.
- Assunção, Juliano & Gandour, Clarissa & Rocha, Rudi, 2015. "Deforestation slowdown in the Brazilian Amazon: prices or policies?," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(06), pages 697-722, December.
- Vally Koubi & Thomas Bernauer & Anna Kalbhenn & Gabriele Spilker, 2012. "Climate variability, economic growth, and civil conflict," Journal of Peace Research, Peace Research Institute Oslo, vol. 49(1), pages 113-127, January.
- Concetta Castiglione & Davide Infante & Janna Smirnova, 2012. "Rule of law and the environmental Kuznets curve: evidence for carbon emissions," International Journal of Sustainable Economy, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 4(3), pages 254-269.
- Concetta Castiglione & Davide Infante & Janna Smirnova, 2011. "Rule of law and the Environmental Kuznets Curve: evidence for carbon emissions," Trinity Economics Papers tep0111, Trinity College Dublin, Department of Economics.
- Bhattarai, Madhusudan & Hammig, Michael, 2001. "Institutions and the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Deforestation: A Crosscountry Analysis for Latin America, Africa and Asia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 995-1010, June.
- Koop, Gary & Tole, Lise, 1999. "Is there an environmental Kuznets curve for deforestation?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 231-244, February.
- Norman Loayza & Pablo Fajnzylber & Daniel Lederman, 2000. "Crime and Victimization: An Economic Perspective," ECONOMIA JOURNAL OF THE LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION, ECONOMIA JOURNAL OF THE LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION, vol. 0(Fall 2000), pages 219-302, August.
- Chris Jeffords & Lanse Minkler, 2016. "Do Constitutions Matter? The Effects of Constitutional Environmental Rights Provisions on Environmental Outcomes," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 69(2), pages 294-335, 05.
- Christopher Jeffords & Lanse Minkler, 2014. "Do Constitutions Matter? The Effects of Constitutional Environmental Rights Provisions on Environmental Outcomes," Working papers 2014-16, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
- Richard S. J. Tol, 2016. "The Impacts Of Climate Change According To The Ipcc," Climate Change Economics (CCE), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 7(01), pages 1-20, February.
- Richard S. J. Tol, 2015. "The impacts of climate change according to the IPCC," Working Paper Series 7815, Department of Economics, University of Sussex. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ebl:ecbull:eb-15-00335. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (John P. Conley)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.