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Frühe Förderung und Betreuung von Kindern: bedeutende Unterschiede bei der Inanspruchnahme besonders in den ersten Lebensjahren

  • Pia S. Schober
  • C. Katharina Spieß

Both children and their parents can benefit from early education and child care. We investigate whether the various provisions are utilized by all families and what differences there are in terms of the socio-economic resources available to them. On the basis of the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) and the special dataset "Families in Germany" (FiD), we compare children of single parents, children with a migration background, children in low-income households, and children of mothers with a low level of education with children from other families. The findings show that, with a few exceptions, particularly younger children from these four groups are underrepresented in formal education and child care in Germany as a whole. With regard to utilization of non-formal provisions, this sometimes also applies to children aged three years to school age. If additional relevant socio-economic characteristics such as the mother's occupation are taken into account, a more detailed picture emerges, showing that particularly under-three-year-olds whose parents do not mostly speak German at home are underrepresented in day care facilities in western Germany. However, this does not apply to children with at least one parent with a migration background. Children from households receiving unemployment benefit II are significantly underrepresented in eastern Germany. The differences are even greater as far as non-formal provisions are concerned. For both age groups, these are used significantly less by children in almost all groups with more limited resources. Von einer frühen Förderung und Betreuung können Kinder und ihre Eltern profitieren. Wir gehen der Frage nach, ob diese Angebote von allen Familien genutzt werden und welche Unterschiede es im Hinblick auf die sozioökonomische Ressourcenausstattung von Familien gibt. Auf der Basis des Sozio-oekonomischen Panels (SOEP) und der Spezialstudie FiD (Familien in Deutschland) vergleichen wir Kinder von Alleinerziehenden, Kinder mit Migrationshintergrund, Kinder in Niedrigeinkommenshaushalten und Kinder von Müttern mit niedrigem Bildungsniveau mit Kindern aus anderen Familien. Es zeigt sich, dass in Gesamtdeutschland mit wenigen Ausnahmen insbesondere jüngere Kinder dieser Gruppen bei der formalen Förderung und Betreuung unterrepräsentiert sind. Bei der Nutzung von nonformalen Angeboten trifft dies teilweise auch auf Kinder im Kindergartenalter zu. Wenn man zusätzliche relevante sozioökonomische Merkmale wie zum Beispiel die Erwerbstätigkeit der Mutter berücksichtigt, erhält man das differenziertere Bild, dass in Westdeutschland insbesondere jene Kinder unter drei Jahren in Kindertageseinrichtungen unterrepräsentiert sind, deren Eltern zu Hause überwiegend nicht Deutsch sprechen. Wenn der Mitgrationshintergrund darüber erfasst wird, ob mindestens ein Elternteil einen solchen Hintergrund hat, findet man nicht mehr, dass diese Kinder eine signifikant geringere Nutzungswahrscheinlichkeit haben. In Ostdeutschland sind Kinder aus Haushalten, die Arbeitslosengeld II empfangen, signifikant unterrepräsentiert. Bei der Nutzung nonformaler Förderangebote sind die Unterschiede noch größer. Diese Angebote werden von Kindern fast aller Gruppen mit einer geringeren Ressourcenausstattung in beiden Altersgruppen signifikant weniger genutzt.

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File URL: http://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.410479.de/12-43-3.pdf
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Article provided by DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research in its journal DIW Wochenbericht.

Volume (Year): 79 (2012)
Issue (Month): 43 ()
Pages: 17-28

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Handle: RePEc:diw:diwwob:79-43-3
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