IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/cup/jfinqa/v33y1998i03p409-422_00.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Asian Options, the Sum of Lognormals, and the Reciprocal Gamma Distribution

Author

Listed:
  • Milevsky, Moshe Arye
  • Posner, Steven E.

Abstract

Arithmetic Asian options are difficult to price and hedge as they do not have closed-form analytic solutions. The main theoretical reason for this difficulty is that the payoff depends on the finite sum of correlated lognormal variables, which is not lognormal and for which there is no recognizable probability density function. We use elementary techniques to derive the probability density function of the infinite sum of correlated lognormal random variables and show that it is reciprocal gamma distributed, under suitable parameter restrictions. A random variable is reciprocal gamma distributed if its inverse is gamma distributed. We use this result to approximate the finite sum of correlated lognormal variables and then value arithmetic Asian options using the reciprocal gamma distribution as the state-price density function. We thus obtain a closed-form analytic expression for the value of an arithmetic Asian option, where the cumulative density function of the gamma distribution, G(d) in our formula, plays the exact same role as N(d) in the Black-Scholes/Merton formula. In addition to being theoretically justified and exact in the limit, we compare our method against other algorithms in the literature and show our method is quicker, at least as accurate, and, in our opinion, more intuitive and pedagogically appealing than any previously published result, especially when applied to high yielding currency options.

Suggested Citation

  • Milevsky, Moshe Arye & Posner, Steven E., 1998. "Asian Options, the Sum of Lognormals, and the Reciprocal Gamma Distribution," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 33(3), pages 409-422, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:cup:jfinqa:v:33:y:1998:i:03:p:409-422_00
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0022109000001009/type/journal_article
    File Function: link to article abstract page
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. De Schepper, A. & Teunen, M. & Goovaerts, M., 1994. "An analytical inversion of a Laplace transform related to annuities certain," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 33-37, April.
    2. Alziary, Benedicte & Decamps, Jean-Paul & Koehl, Pierre-Francois, 1997. "A P.D.E. approach to Asian options: analytical and numerical evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 613-640, May.
    3. J. A. Nielsen & K. Sandmann, 1996. "The pricing of Asian options under stochastic interest rates," Applied Mathematical Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(3), pages 209-236.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Manuel Moreno & Javier F. Navas, 2003. "Australian Asian Options," Working Papers 28, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
    2. Manuel Moreno & Javier F. Navas, 2008. "Australian Options," Australian Journal of Management, Australian School of Business, vol. 33(1), pages 69-93, June.
    3. Keng‐Hsin Lo & Kehluh Wang & Ming‐Feng Hsu, 2008. "Pricing European Asian options with skewness and kurtosis in the underlying distribution," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(6), pages 598-616, June.
    4. Moshe Arye Milevsky & Steven E. Posner, 1999. "Asian Options, The Sum Of Lognormals, And The Reciprocal Gamma Distribution," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Marco Avellaneda (ed.),Quantitative Analysis In Financial Markets Collected Papers of the New York University Mathematical Finance Seminar, chapter 7, pages 203-218, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    5. Zhang, Wei-Guo & Li, Zhe & Liu, Yong-Jun, 2018. "Analytical pricing of geometric Asian power options on an underlying driven by a mixed fractional Brownian motion," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 490(C), pages 402-418.
    6. Goovaerts, M. J. & Dhaene, J., 1999. "Supermodular ordering and stochastic annuities," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 281-290, May.
    7. E. Benhamou, 2001. "Fast Fourier Transform for discrete Asian Options," Computing in Economics and Finance 2001 6, Society for Computational Economics.
    8. Yanhong Zhong & Guohe Deng, 2019. "Geometric Asian Options Pricing under the Double Heston Stochastic Volatility Model with Stochastic Interest Rate," Complexity, Hindawi, vol. 2019, pages 1-13, January.
    9. Lim, Terence & Lo, Andrew W. & Merton, Robert C. & Scholes, Myron S., 2006. "The Derivatives Sourcebook," Foundations and Trends(R) in Finance, now publishers, vol. 1(5–6), pages 365-572, April.
    10. Wu, Yang-Che & Chung, San-Lin, 2010. "Catastrophe risk management with counterparty risk using alternative instruments," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 234-245, October.
    11. Chad E. Hart & Bruce A. Babcock & Dermot J. Hayes, 2001. "Livestock Revenue Insurance," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(6), pages 553-580, June.
    12. Goovaerts, Marc & De Schepper, Ann, 1997. "IBNR reserves under stochastic interest rates," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 225-244, December.
    13. Susana Alvarez Diez & Samuel Baixauli & Luis Eduardo Girón, 2019. "Valoración de opciones call asiáticas Promedio Aritmético usando Taylor Estocástico 1.5," Working Papers 44, Faculty of Economics and Management, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali.
    14. Dhaene, J. & Denuit, M. & Goovaerts, M. J. & Kaas, R. & Vyncke, D., 2002. "The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: applications," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 133-161, October.
    15. Boyle, Phelim & Draviam, Thangaraj, 2007. "Pricing exotic options under regime switching," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 267-282, March.
    16. Eric Benhamou & Alexandre Duguet, 2000. "A 2 Dimensional Pde For Discrete Asian Options," Computing in Economics and Finance 2000 33, Society for Computational Economics.
    17. Vanduffel, Steven & Shang, Zhaoning & Henrard, Luc & Dhaene, Jan & Valdez, Emiliano A., 2008. "Analytic bounds and approximations for annuities and Asian options," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 1109-1117, June.
    18. De Schepper, Ann & Goovaerts, Marc & Dhaene, Jan & Kaas, Rob & Vyncke, David, 2002. "Bounds for present value functions with stochastic interest rates and stochastic volatility," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 87-103, August.
    19. Schrager, David F. & Pelsser, Antoon A.J., 2004. "Pricing Rate of Return Guarantees in Regular Premium Unit Linked Insurance," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 369-398, October.
    20. Vanneste, M. & Goovaerts, M. J. & De Schepper, A. & Dhaene, J., 1997. "A straightforward analytical calculation of the distribution of an annuity certain with stochastic interest rate," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 35-41, June.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cup:jfinqa:v:33:y:1998:i:03:p:409-422_00. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Keith Waters). General contact details of provider: https://www.cambridge.org/jfq .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.