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International Politics and the Spread of Quotas for Women in Legislatures

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  • Bush, Sarah Sunn

Abstract

Quotas to promote women's representation in the world's legislatures have spread to more than one hundred countries. The diffusion of gender quotas poses a puzzle since they have often been adopted in countries where women have low status. International influence and inducements best explain quota adoption in developing countries. Promoting gender equality, including through gender quotas, has become a key part of international democracy promotion. The international legitimacy of gender quotas leads them to be adopted through two causal pathways: directly, through postconflict peace operations, and indirectly, by encouraging countries, especially those that depend on foreign aid, to signal their commitment to democracy by adopting quotas. An event history analysis, which controls for other relevant factors, shows that the hypothesized relationships exist. Further support comes from a process-tracing analysis of Afghanistan's 2004 quota.

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  • Bush, Sarah Sunn, 2011. "International Politics and the Spread of Quotas for Women in Legislatures," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 65(01), pages 103-137, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:cup:intorg:v:65:y:2011:i:01:p:103-137_00
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    1. repec:eee:jbfina:v:80:y:2017:i:c:p:119-134 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Sarah Sunn Bush, 2016. "When and why is civil society support “made-in-America”? Delegation to non-state actors in American democracy promotion," The Review of International Organizations, Springer, vol. 11(3), pages 361-385, September.
    3. Suárez Sandra L., 2015. "Reflections on a “Heavenly Chorus [that] Sings with a Strong [Male] Upper Class Accent”," Business and Politics, De Gruyter, vol. 17(1), pages 161-175, April.
    4. Amanda Murdie & Dursun Peksen, 2015. "Women’s rights INGO shaming and the government respect for women’s rights," The Review of International Organizations, Springer, vol. 10(1), pages 1-22, March.
    5. Monten, Jonathan, 2013. "Intervention, Aid, and Institution-Building in Iraq and Afghanistan: A Review and Critique of Comparative Lessons," WIDER Working Paper Series 108, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    6. repec:eee:finsta:v:31:y:2017:i:c:p:136-153 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. repec:spr:ieaple:v:17:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s10784-016-9332-y is not listed on IDEAS

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