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Efectos de la liberación y del control de importaciones sobre la industria manufacturera colombiana, 1976 - 1986


  • José Antonio Ocampo


“El análisis ortodoxo de política comercial se ha convertido en el evangelio de algunas agencias internacionales del desarrollo. Este esquema conceptual ha sido ampliamente desarrollado y difundido en los círculos académicos del Norte, en donde con relativa frecuencia se culpa a políticas comerciales "incorrectas" por la crisis actual del Tercer Mundo. La base de este análisis es el modelo neoclásico tradicional sin imperfecciones de mercado. Se sabe, que en los sectores industriales de los países en desarrollo, donde los efectos de las políticas de liberación y control de importaciones se manifiestan con mayor fuerza. Los fuertes virajes que ha experimentado la política de importaciones de Colombia a lo largo de las dos últimas décadas resultan un terreno particularmente fructífero para poner a prueba las predicciones de la teoría ortodoxa del comercio. Entre comienzos de los anos setentas y los primeros anos de la década de los ochentas se llevó a cabo una política de liberación de importaciones, como resultado de la cual el país tenía en 1982 el régimen comercial más liberal de la posguerra. A fines de este último ano se inició una reversión drástica de estas políticas. En este trabajo se estudian los efectos de la política de importaciones sobre la industria manufacturera. Se divide en tres partes. La primera se hace una resena de las políticas de importaciones. La segunda considera los efectos de estas políticas sobre la industria. Finalmente, se presenta y estima un modelo sencillo de competencia imperfecta que capta los efectos macroeconómicos y sectoriales de la liberación y el control de importaciones sobre los precios y la producción manufacturera.”

Suggested Citation

  • José Antonio Ocampo, 1989. "Efectos de la liberación y del control de importaciones sobre la industria manufacturera colombiana, 1976 - 1986," Coyuntura Económica, Fedesarrollo, vol. 19(1), pages 121-151, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:col:000438:013808

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Cripps, Francis T & Godley, Wynne A H, 1978. "Control of Imports as a Means to Full Employment and the Expansion of World Trade: The UK's Case: Comment," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Cambridge Political Economy Society, vol. 2(3), pages 327-334, September.
    2. Buffie, Edward F. & Spiller, Pablo T., 1986. "Trade liberalization in oligopolistic industries : The quota case," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 65-81, February.
    3. Eichner, Alfred S, 1973. "A Theory of the Determination of the Mark-up Under Oligopoly," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 83(332), pages 1184-1200, December.
    4. Lance Taylor, 1988. "Economic Openness: Problems to the Century's End," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-1988-041, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    5. Michael Bruno, 1982. "Import Competition and Macroeconomic Adjustment under Wage-Price Rigidity," NBER Chapters, in: Import Competition and Response, pages 9-38, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. Elio Londero & Simón Teitel, 1996. "Industrialisation and the factor content of Latin American exports of manufactures," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(4), pages 581-601.

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    More about this item


    Informes de Investigación; Industria; Importaciones; Política de Importación; Liberalización del Intercambio; Restricciones a la Importación; Control a las Importaciones;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F40 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - General
    • R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)


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