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Europe: How Deep Is a Crisis? Policy Responses and Structural Factors Behind Diverging Performances

Author

Listed:
  • Fitoussi Jean Paul

    (Sciences Politiques)

  • Saraceno Francesco

    (OFCE - Center for Research in Economics of Sciences Po, Paris)

Abstract

The effects of the current crisis on the level of output, and consequently on unemployment and poverty, are likely to be deep and long lasting; they should not be underestimated, especially now that some timid signs of recovery are appearing. The crisis was triggered by the US financial sector, but its roots are real, and can be traced to the deepening income inequality of the last three decades, which led to a chronic deficiency of aggregate demand. In the Unites States, the center of the crisis, the policy reaction has been bold, and as a consequence the effects of the crisis are less important than in the eurozone, where only France has a comparable performance. The policy inertia of the eurozone countries, in fact, is more structural, and is related to the institutions for the economic governance of Europe. The statute of the ECB and the Stability and Growth Pact, that reflect a doctrine opposed to discretionary macroeconomic policies, constrain eurozone governments and its monetary policy. The relatively better performance of France can in fact be explained with these lenses: on one side it has a well developed system of automatic stabilizers, and on the other it suffered less than other OECD countries the deepening of income inequality.

Suggested Citation

  • Fitoussi Jean Paul & Saraceno Francesco, 2010. "Europe: How Deep Is a Crisis? Policy Responses and Structural Factors Behind Diverging Performances," Journal of Globalization and Development, De Gruyter, vol. 1(1), pages 1-19, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:bpj:globdv:v:1:y:2010:i:1:n:17
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Jonathan Heathcote & Fabrizio Perri & Giovanni L. Violante, 2010. "Unequal We Stand: An Empirical Analysis of Economic Inequality in the United States: 1967-2006," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 13(1), pages 15-51, January.
    2. Marco Buti & Gabriele Giudice, 2002. "Maastricht's Fiscal Rules at Ten: An Assessment," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(5), pages 823-848, December.
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    Citations

    Blog mentions

    As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. L’Inégalité Nuit-elle à la Performance Economique ?
      by saraceno in OFCE le blog on 2012-10-12 19:18:45
    2. Does inequality hurt economic performance?
      by laurence-df in OFCE le blog on 2012-10-15 18:17:59

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Xavier Timbeau, 2014. "From austerity to stagnation how to avoid the deflation trap: The independant annual growth survey 2014," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/c5gs2rgi93a, Sciences Po.
    2. Francesco Saraceno, 2014. "High inequality and its impact on the economy," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/12hs8nng048, Sciences Po.
    3. Luca Agnello & Ricardo M. Sousa, 2012. "How do banking crises impact on income inequality?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(15), pages 1425-1429, October.
    4. Luca Agnello & Ricardo M. Sousa, 2014. "How Does Fiscal Consolidation Impact on Income Inequality?," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 60(4), pages 702-726, December.
    5. Julio Lòpez Gallardo, 2012. "Una riconsiderazione degli studi da Kalecki sull'economia statunitense," Moneta e Credito, Economia civile, vol. 65(257), pages 59-81.
    6. Cardaci, Alberto & Saraceno, Francesco, 2016. "Inequality, Financialisation and Credit Booms - a Model of Two Crises," SEP Working Papers 2016/2, LUISS School of European Political Economy.
    7. Tuomas Malinen, 2016. "Does income inequality contribute to credit cycles?," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 14(3), pages 309-325, September.
    8. Jean-Paul Fitoussi & Francesco Saraceno, 2010. "Inequality and macroeconomic performance," Working Papers hal-01069429, HAL.
    9. Perugini, Cristiano & Hölscher, Jens & Collie, Simon, 2013. "Inequality, credit expansion and financial crises," MPRA Paper 51336, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Yuliyan Mitkov, 2016. "Inequality and Financial Fragility," Departmental Working Papers 201602, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.
    11. Kirschenmann, Karolin & Malinen, Tuomas & Nyberg, Henri, 2016. "The risk of financial crises: Is there a role for income inequality?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 161-180.
    12. Luca Agnello & Ricardo M. Sousa, 2011. "Fiscal Consolidation and Income Inequality," NIPE Working Papers 34/2011, NIPE - Universidade do Minho.
    13. Matteo Coronese & Isabelle Salle, 2018. "The "Rajan Hypothesis": a counter-factual experiment," LEM Papers Series 2018/03, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
    14. Semih Tumen, 2013. "The Impact of the 2008 Crisis on Top Labor Incomes in Turkey: A Nonparametric Analysis," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 33(2), pages 1269-1282.
    15. Rémi Bazillier & Jérôme Héricourt, 2014. "The Circular Relationship between Inequality, Leverage, and Financial Crises: Intertwined Mechanisms and Competing Evidence," Working Papers 2014-22, CEPII research center.
    16. Joseph E. Stiglitz, 2011. "Rethinking Macroeconomics: What Failed, And How To Repair It," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 591-645, August.
    17. repec:agh:journl:v:18:y:2017:i:2:p:133-145 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/46mbanhapncmp6s9g2choh4pj is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Jean-Paul Fitoussi & Francesco Saraceno, 2014. "Drivers of inequality: Past and present challenges for Europe," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/2q6hk56t1k8, Sciences Po.
    20. David Loschiavo, 2016. "Household debt and income inequality: evidence from Italian survey data," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1095, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.

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