IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/bpj/bejeap/vcontributions.3y2004i1n3.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Why Do the Poor and the Less-Educated Pay More for Long-Distance Calls?

Author

Listed:
  • Hausman Jerry A.

    () (MIT)

  • Sidak J. Gregory

    () (American Enterprise Institute)

Abstract

The benefits of competition among the long-distance interexchange carriers (IXCs) are not realized equally by all their customers. Despite the declines in rates under the discount plans, we document that basic message toll service (MTS) rates have been rising for several years. We show that poorer and less educated customers pay more than better educated and more affluent customers. We suspect that the reason for this correlation is that they are more apt to pay the MTS rates or other high rates, and we present some preliminary evidence that this tendency explains the correlation that we find. We also present evidence that the payment differences exist even after controlling for usage. These findings are significant because it seems likely to us that these two patterns (rising MTS rates and higher payments by the poor and the less educated) will each be ameliorated by the entry of the regional Bell operating companies (RBOCs) into long-distance markets—a state-by-state regulatory process that was nearly complete as of the beginning of 2004.

Suggested Citation

  • Hausman Jerry A. & Sidak J. Gregory, 2004. "Why Do the Poor and the Less-Educated Pay More for Long-Distance Calls?," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 3(1), pages 1-29, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:bpj:bejeap:v:contributions.3:y:2004:i:1:n:3
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/bejeap.2003.3.issue-1/bejeap.2004.3.1.1210/bejeap.2004.3.1.1210.xml?format=INT
    Download Restriction: For access to full text, subscription to the journal or payment for the individual article is required.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Pindyck, Robert S, 1993. "A Note on Competitive Investment under Uncertainty," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(1), pages 273-277, March.
    2. Krishna, Kala & Tan, Ling Hui, 1999. "Transferable Licenses versus Nontransferable Licenses: What Is the Difference?," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 40(3), pages 785-800, August.
    3. Judd, Kenneth L., 1985. "The law of large numbers with a continuum of IID random variables," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 19-25, February.
    4. Sandmo, Agnar, 1971. "On the Theory of the Competitive Firm under Price Uncertainty," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 61(1), pages 65-73, March.
    5. Appelbaum, Elie & Katz, Eliakim, 1986. "Measures of Risk Aversion and Comparative Statics of Industry Equilibrium," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(3), pages 524-529, June.
    6. Batra, Raveendra N & Ullah, Aman, 1974. "Competitive Firm and the Theory of Input Demand under Price Uncertainty," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(3), pages 537-548, May/June.
    7. Squires, Dale, 1994. "Firm behavior under input rationing," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 61(2), pages 235-257, April.
    8. Haruna, Shoji, 1992. "The comparative statics of a competitive industry with free entry and uncertainty," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 4(3), pages 239-249, November.
    9. Hartman, Richard, 1976. "Factor Demand with Output Price Uncertainty," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 66(4), pages 675-681, September.
    10. Spencer, Barbara J., 1997. "Quota licenses for imported capital equipment: Could bureaucrats ever do better than the market?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, pages 1-27.
    11. Spencer, Barbara J., 1997. "Quota licenses for imported capital equipment: Could bureaucrats ever do better than the market?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, pages 1-27.
    12. Caballero, Ricardo J, 1991. "On the Sign of the Investment-Uncertainty Relationship," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(1), pages 279-288, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Glenn Ellison, 2005. "A Model of Add-On Pricing," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 120(2), pages 585-637.
    2. Kondylis, Florence, 2005. "Agricultural returns and conflict: quasi-experimental evidence from a policy intervention programme in Rwanda," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 19878, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    3. Harding, Matthew & Lamarche, Carlos, 2009. "A quantile regression approach for estimating panel data models using instrumental variables," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 104(3), pages 133-135, September.
    4. Paul Zimmerman, 2008. "Strategic incentives under vertical integration: the case of wireline-affiliated wireless carriers and intermodal competition in the US," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 282-298, December.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bpj:bejeap:v:contributions.3:y:2004:i:1:n:3. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Peter Golla). General contact details of provider: https://www.degruyter.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.