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The Evolution Of The Term 'Washington Consensus'


  • John Marangos


The term 'Washington Consensus', as Williamson conceived it, was the lowest common denominator of the reforms that he judged 'Washington' could agree were required in Latin America. The term has evolved to denote a different set of policies from those initially conceived. This paper investigates the different versions and interpretations of this controversial term and assesses whether the term itself is suitable and viable or slowly becoming irrelevant and obsolete. Most importantly, the evolution of the term mirrors the evolution of economic thought on economic development for nearly the last two decades. Copyright © 2009 The Author. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Suggested Citation

  • John Marangos, 2009. "The Evolution Of The Term 'Washington Consensus'," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(2), pages 350-384, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:jecsur:v:23:y:2009:i:2:p:350-384

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Katerina Arnostova & Jaromir Hurnik, 2005. "The Monetary Transmission Mechanism in the Czech Republic (evidence from VAR analysis)," Working Papers 2005/04, Czech National Bank, Research Department.
    2. Zelal Aktas & Neslihan Kaya & Umit Ozlale, 2005. "The Price Puzzle in Emerging Markets : Evidence from the Turkish Economy Using Model Based Risk Premium Derived from Domestic Fundamentals," Working Papers 0502, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.
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    Cited by:

    1. Asongu, Simplice & Nwachukwu, Jacinta, 2016. "Is the Threat of Foreign Aid Withdrawal an Effective Deterrent to Political Oppression? Evidence from 53 African Countries," MPRA Paper 74649, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Rossitsa Rangelova Pavlova & Grigor Sariiski, 2015. "Negative Impacts of the Neo-liberal Policies on the Banking Sector in Bulgaria," Contemporary Economics, University of Finance and Management in Warsaw, vol. 9(1), April.
    3. Ben FINE & David HALL, 2010. "Contesting neoliberalism: public sector alternatives for service delivery," Departmental Working Papers 2010-27, Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods at Università degli Studi di Milano.
    4. Andrea Filippo Presbitero & Alberto Zazzaro, 2010. "The Global Crisis in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: How the IMF Responded," Mo.Fi.R. Working Papers 35, Money and Finance Research group (Mo.Fi.R.) - Univ. Politecnica Marche - Dept. Economic and Social Sciences.
    5. John Marangos & Charles J. Whalen, 2011. "Evolution without fundamental change: the Washington Consensus on economic development," Chapters,in: Financial Instability and Economic Security after the Great Recession, chapter 8, pages 153-178 Edward Elgar Publishing.

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