IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Climate Policy and the Long-Term Evolution of the U.S. Buildings Sector


  • Page Kyle
  • Leon Clarke
  • Fang Rong
  • Steven J. Smith


Buildings are the dominant driver of daily and seasonal electric load cycles, and account for 40 percent of U.S. final energy use. They account for roughly 10 percent of direct U.S. CO2 emissions and roughly 40 percent once indirect emissions from electricity generation are included. This paper explores the possible evolution of this sector over the coming century, its potential role in climate action and response to climate policies, and the potential benefits of advances in building technologies for addressing climate change. The paper presents a set of scenarios based on a detailed, service-based model of the U.S. buildings sector that is embedded within a long-term, global, integrated assessment model, MiniCAM. Eight scenarios are created in total, combining two sets of assumptions regarding U.S. building service demand growth, two sets of assumptions regarding the improvements in building energy technologies, and two assumptions regarding long-term U.S. climate action Ð a no-climate¥action assumption and an assumption of market-based policies to reduce U.S. CO2 emissions consistent with a 450 ppmv global target. Through these eight scenarios, the paper comments on the implications of continued growth in building service demands, the ability of efficiency measures to reduce emissions, and the strong link between decarbonization of electricity generation and building sector emissions.

Suggested Citation

  • Page Kyle & Leon Clarke & Fang Rong & Steven J. Smith, 2010. "Climate Policy and the Long-Term Evolution of the U.S. Buildings Sector," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 2), pages 145-172.
  • Handle: RePEc:aen:journl:2010v31-02-a06

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to IAEE members and subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Yu, Sha & Eom, Jiyong & Zhou, Yuyu & Evans, Meredydd & Clarke, Leon, 2014. "Scenarios of building energy demand for China with a detailed regional representation," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 284-297.
    2. Zhao, Rui & Zhou, Xiao & Han, Jiaojie & Liu, Chengliang, 2016. "For the sustainable performance of the carbon reduction labeling policies under an evolutionary game simulation," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 112(C), pages 262-274.
    3. Scott, Michael J. & Daly, Don S. & Hathaway, John E. & Lansing, Carina S. & Liu, Ying & McJeon, Haewon C. & Moss, Richard H. & Patel, Pralit L. & Peterson, Marty J. & Rice, Jennie S. & Zhou, Yuyu, 2015. "Calculating impacts of energy standards on energy demand in U.S. buildings with uncertainty in an integrated assessment model," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 90(P2), pages 1682-1694.
    4. Zhou, Yuyu & Clarke, Leon & Eom, Jiyong & Kyle, Page & Patel, Pralit & Kim, Son H. & Dirks, James & Jensen, Erik & Liu, Ying & Rice, Jennie & Schmidt, Laurel & Seiple, Timothy, 2014. "Modeling the effect of climate change on U.S. state-level buildings energy demands in an integrated assessment framework," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 1077-1088.
    5. Eom, Jiyong & Clarke, Leon & Kim, Son H. & Kyle, Page & Patel, Pralit, 2012. "China's building energy demand: Long-term implications from a detailed assessment," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 405-419.
    6. James McFarland & Yuyu Zhou & Leon Clarke & Patrick Sullivan & Jesse Colman & Wendy Jaglom & Michelle Colley & Pralit Patel & Jiyon Eom & Son Kim & G. Kyle & Peter Schultz & Boddu Venkatesh & Juanita , 2015. "Impacts of rising air temperatures and emissions mitigation on electricity demand and supply in the United States: a multi-model comparison," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 131(1), pages 111-125, July.
    7. Salari, Mahmoud & Javid, Roxana J., 2017. "Modeling household energy expenditure in the United States," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 822-832.
    8. Chaturvedi, Vaibhav & Kim, Sonny & Smith, Steven J. & Clarke, Leon & Yuyu, Zhou & Kyle, Page & Patel, Pralit, 2013. "Model evaluation and hindcasting: An experiment with an integrated assessment model," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 479-490.
    9. Scott, Michael J. & Daly, Don S. & Zhou, Yuyu & Rice, Jennie S. & Patel, Pralit L. & McJeon, Haewon C. & Page Kyle, G. & Kim, Son H. & Eom, Jiyong & Clarke, Leon E., 2014. "Evaluating sub-national building-energy efficiency policy options under uncertainty: Efficient sensitivity testing of alternative climate, technological, and socioeconomic futures in a regional integr," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 22-33.
    10. Salari, Mahmoud & Javid, Roxana J., 2016. "Residential energy demand in the United States: Analysis using static and dynamic approaches," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 637-649.
    11. repec:eee:enepol:v:110:y:2017:i:c:p:331-341 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Daioglou, Vassilis & van Ruijven, Bas J. & van Vuuren, Detlef P., 2012. "Model projections for household energy use in developing countries," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 601-615.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F0 - International Economics - - General


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:aen:journl:2010v31-02-a06. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (David Williams). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.