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Electronic Trading in Stock Markets

Author

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  • Hans R. Stoll

Abstract

Modern trading technology clashes with the traditional organization of a stock exchange, where transactions were consummated via face-to-face negotiation. The modern trading facility is no longer a place. Rather, it is a computer system over which transactions are entered, routed, executed and cleared electronically with little or no human intervention. In this article, I examine how electronic trading has altered stock markets. I begin with an overview of how the stock trading process works and then address a number of questions. How have the jobs of traditional stock market dealers on the NYSE and on Nasdaq been affected by electronic trading? How do electronic communications networks differ from traditional markets? How has electronic trading affected bid-ask spreads and commission costs? What subtle issues arise in electronic trading when dealer and customer interests diverge? Will computer programs replace human judgment? What is the effect of electronic trading on the number and types of securities markets? What is the role of regulation in electronic markets?

Suggested Citation

  • Hans R. Stoll, 2006. "Electronic Trading in Stock Markets," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 20(1), pages 153-174, Winter.
  • Handle: RePEc:aea:jecper:v:20:y:2006:i:1:p:153-174
    Note: DOI: 10.1257/089533006776526067
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    File URL: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/089533006776526067
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Christie, William G & Harris, Jeffrey H & Schultz, Paul H, 1994. " Why Did NASDAQ Market Makers Stop Avoiding Odd-Eighth Quotes?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(5), pages 1841-1860, December.
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    3. Sofianos, George & Werner, Ingrid M., 2000. "The trades of NYSE floor brokers," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 139-176, May.
    4. Huang, Roger D. & Stoll, Hans R., 1996. "Dealer versus auction markets: A paired comparison of execution costs on NASDAQ and the NYSE," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 313-357, July.
    5. Stoll, Hans R. & Schenzler, Christoph, 2006. "Trades outside the quotes: Reporting delay, trading option, or trade size?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(3), pages 615-653, March.
    6. Bacidore, Jeffrey & Battalio, Robert H. & Jennings, Robert H., 2003. "Order submission strategies, liquidity supply, and trading in pennies on the New York Stock Exchange," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 337-362, May.
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    8. Harold Demsetz, 1968. "The Cost of Transacting," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 82(1), pages 33-53.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Ricardo Lagos & Guillaume Rocheteau, 2009. "Liquidity in Asset Markets With Search Frictions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 77(2), pages 403-426, March.
    2. repec:spr:fininn:v:1:y:2015:i:1:d:10.1186_s40854-015-0003-8 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Dale W. R. Rosenthal, 2012. "Modeling Trade Direction," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 10(2), pages 390-415, 2012 04.
    4. Baradarannia, M. Reza & Peat, Maurice, 2013. "Liquidity and expected returns—Evidence from 1926–2008," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 10-23.
    5. Daniëls, Tijmen R. & Dönges, Jutta & Heinemann, Frank, 2013. "Crossing network versus dealer market: Unique equilibrium in the allocation of order flow," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 41-57.
    6. Chung, Dennis & Hrazdil, Karel, 2010. "Liquidity and market efficiency: A large sample study," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(10), pages 2346-2357, October.
    7. Ledenyov, Dimitri O. & Ledenyov, Viktor O., 2015. "Wave function method to forecast foreign currencies exchange rates at ultra high frequency electronic trading in foreign currencies exchange markets," MPRA Paper 67470, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Söderberg, Jonas, 2008. "Liquidity on the Scandinavian Order-driven Stock Exchanges," CAFO Working Papers 2009:11, Linnaeus University, Centre for Labour Market Policy Research (CAFO), School of Business and Economics.
    9. Chung, Dennis Y. & Hrazdil, Karel, 2010. "Liquidity and market efficiency: Analysis of NASDAQ firms," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 262-274.
    10. Ben Omrane, Walid & Welch, Robert, 2016. "Tick test accuracy in foreign exchange ECN markets," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 135-152.
    11. Cantillon, Estelle & Yin, Pai-Ling, 2011. "Competition between exchanges: A research agenda," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 329-336, May.
    12. repec:spr:jmgtco:v:28:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s00187-017-0251-z is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Chung, Dennis Y. & Hrazdil, Karel, 2012. "Speed of convergence to market efficiency: The role of ECNs," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 702-720.
    14. Kauffman, Robert J. & Liu, Jun & Ma, Dan, 2015. "Innovations in financial IS and technology ecosystems: High-frequency trading in the equity market," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 339-354.
    15. Fong, Kingsley Y.L. & Liu, Wai-Man, 2010. "Limit order revisions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1873-1885, August.
    16. repec:kap:rqfnac:v:49:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s11156-017-0620-6 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Roll, Richard & Subrahmanyam, Avanidhar, 2010. "Liquidity skewness," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(10), pages 2562-2571, October.
    18. Shynkevich, Andrei, 2012. "Short-term predictability of equity returns along two style dimensions," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 675-685.
    19. Ding, Liang & Hiltrop, Jonas, 2010. "The electronic trading systems and bid-ask spreads in the foreign exchange market," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 323-345, October.
    20. Liao, Huei-Chu & Lee, Yi-Huey & Suen, Yu-Bo, 2008. "Electronic trading system and returns volatility in the oil futures market," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 2636-2644, September.

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