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Recycling of eco-taxes, labor market effects and the true cost of labor: a CGE analysis

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  • Löschel, Andreas
  • Conrad, Klaus

Abstract

Computable general equilibrium (CGE) modeling has provided a number of important insights about the interplay between environmental tax policy and the pre-existing tax system. In this paper, we emphasize that a labor market policy of recycling tax revenues from an environmental tax to lower employers? non-wage labor cost depends on how the costs of labor are modeled. We propose an approach which combines neoclassical substitutability and fixed factor proportions. Our concept implies a user cost of labor which consists of the market price of labor plus the costs of inputs associated with the employment of a worker. We present simulation results based on a CO2 tax and the recycling of its revenues to reduce the nonwage labor cost. One simulation is based on the market price of labor and the other on the user cost of labor. We found a double dividend under the first approach but not under the second one. --

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Paper provided by ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research in its series ZEW Discussion Papers with number 02-31.

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Date of creation: 2002
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:866

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Keywords: Market-based environmental policy; carbon taxes; double dividend; computable general equilibrium modeling;

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  1. S. Proost & D. Regemorter, 1995. "The double dividend and the role of inequality aversion and macroeconomic regimes," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 2(2), pages 207-219, August.
  2. Olson, Dennis O. & Shieh, Yeung-Nan, 1989. "Estimating functional forms in cost-prices," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 1445-1461, September.
  3. Conrad, K & Schroder, M, 1991. "Demand for Durable and Nondurable Goods, Environmental Policy and Consumer Welfare," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 6(3), pages 271-86, July-Sept.
  4. Koebel, Bertrand & Falk, Martin & Laisney, Francois, 2003. "Imposing and Testing Curvature Conditions on a Box-Cox Cost Function," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 21(2), pages 319-35, April.
  5. Jorgenson, D.W. & Wilcoxen, P.J., 1991. "Reducing US Carbon Dioxide Emissions: The Cost of Different Goals," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1575, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  6. Capros, P. & Georgakopoulos, P. & Zografakis, S. & Proost, S., . "Double dividend analysis: first results of a general equilibrium mode (GEM-E3) linking the EU countries," CORE Discussion Papers RP -1207, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  7. A. Lans Bovenberg & Lawrence H. Goulder, 1994. "Optimal Environmental Taxation in the Presence of Other Taxes: General Equilibrium Analyses," NBER Working Papers 4897, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Heinz Welsch, 1996. "Recycling of carbon/energy taxes and the labor market," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 8(2), pages 141-155, September.
  9. Lans Bovenberg, A. & de Mooij, Ruud A., 1994. "Environmental taxes and labor-market distortions," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 655-683, December.
  10. Bovenberg, A. Lans & van der Ploeg, Frederick, 1996. "Optimal taxation, public goods and environmental policy with involuntary unemployment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(1-2), pages 59-83, October.
  11. Ferris, Michael C. & Munson, Todd S., 2000. "Complementarity problems in GAMS and the PATH solver," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 165-188, February.
  12. A. Lans Bovenberg & Lawrence H. Goulder, 2001. "Environmental Taxation and Regulation," NBER Working Papers 8458, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Goulder Lawrence H., 1995. "Effects of Carbon Taxes in an Economy with Prior Tax Distortions: An Intertemporal General Equilibrium Analysis," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 271-297, November.
  14. Conrad, Klaus, 1983. "Cost prices and partially fixed factor proportions in energy substitution," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 299-312, May.
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Cited by:
  1. Copenhagen Economics, 2008. "Reduced VAT for environmentally friendly products," Taxation Studies 0025, Directorate General Taxation and Customs Union, European Commission.

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