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Block Trading, Ownership Structure, and the Value of Corporate Votes

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  • Dittmann, Ingolf

Abstract

This paper shows that open market block trading can provide a link between private benefits of control enjoyed by large shareholders and the ?voting premium?, i.e. the price difference between voting and non-voting shares. We first demonstrate in a microstructure model with informed traders and short-selling constraint that the trading activity of blockholders translates into a spread between the prices of voting and non-voting shares. In contrast to the extant theory, this model can explain the voting premium in the absence of corporate takeovers. In the empirical part of the paper, we show for a comprehensive sample of German dual-class companies that large trades occur more often in voting shares than in non-voting shares, and that the block trading activity in voting shares is strongly correlated with the voting premium. Moreover, the effect of the ownership structure on the voting premium becomes insignificant once we control for the block trading activity in voting shares. --

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Humboldt-Universit├Ąt Berlin, Center for Applied Statistics and Economics (CASE) in its series Papers with number 2004,13.

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Date of creation: 2004
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:caseps:200413

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  1. Zingales, Luigi, 1995. "What Determines the Value of Corporate Votes?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 110(4), pages 1047-73, November.
  2. Megginson, William L, 1990. "Restricted Voting Stock, Acquisition Premiums, and the Market Value of Corporate Control," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 25(2), pages 175-98, May.
  3. Holthausen, Robert W. & Leftwich, Richard W. & Mayers, David, 1987. "The effect of large block transactions on security prices: A cross-sectional analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 237-267, December.
  4. Roger M. Kunz & James J. Angel, 1996. "Factors Affecting the Value of Stock Voting Rights: Evidence from the Swiss Equity Market," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 25(3), Fall.
  5. Shmuel Hauser, 2004. "The Value of Voting Rights to Majority Shareholders: Evidence from Dual-Class Stock Unifications," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 17(4), pages 1167-1184.
  6. Demsetz, Harold & Lehn, Kenneth, 1985. "The Structure of Corporate Ownership: Causes and Consequences," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(6), pages 1155-77, December.
  7. Bergstrom, Clas & Rydqvist, Kristian, 1992. "Differentiated bids for voting and restricted voting shares in public tender offers," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 97-114, February.
  8. Loderer, Claudio & Martin, Kenneth, 1997. "Executive stock ownership and performance Tracking faint traces," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 223-255, August.
  9. Harris, Milton & Raviv, Artur, 1988. "Corporate governance : Voting rights and majority rules," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 203-235, January.
  10. DeAngelo, Harry & DeAngelo, Linda, 1985. "Managerial ownership of voting rights : A study of public corporations with dual classes of common stock," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 33-69, March.
  11. Bruner, Robert F., 1999. "An analysis of value destruction and recovery in the alliance and proposed merger of Volvo and Renault," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 125-166, January.
  12. Zwiebel, Jeffrey, 1995. "Block Investment and Partial Benefits of Corporate Control," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 62(2), pages 161-85, April.
  13. Sanford J. Grossman & Oliver D. Hart, 1987. "One Share/One Vote and The Market for Corporate Control," Working papers 440, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  14. Holthausen, Robert W. & Leftwich, Richard W. & Mayers, David, 1990. "Large-block transactions, the speed of response, and temporary and permanent stock-price effects," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 71-95, July.
  15. Albert S. Kyle & Jean-Luc Vila, 1991. "Noise Trading and Takeovers," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 22(1), pages 54-71, Spring.
  16. Kyle, Albert S, 1985. "Continuous Auctions and Insider Trading," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(6), pages 1315-35, November.
  17. Horner, Melchior R., 1988. "The value of the corporate voting right : Evidence from Switzerland," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 69-83, March.
  18. Maynes, Elizabeth, 1996. "Takeover Rights and the Value of Restricted Shares," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association & Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 19(2), pages 157-73, Summer.
  19. Zingales, Luigi, 1994. "The Value of the Voting Right: A Study of the Milan Stock Exchange Experience," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 7(1), pages 125-48.
  20. Rydqvist, Kristian, 1996. "Takeover bids and the relative prices of shares that differ in their voting rights," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(8), pages 1407-1425, September.
  21. Lease, Ronald C. & McConnell, John J. & Mikkelson, Wayne H., 1983. "The market value of control in publicly-traded corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-4), pages 439-471, April.
  22. Ang, James S & Megginson, William L, 1989. "Restricted Voting Shares, Ownership Structure, and the Market Value of Dual-Class Firms," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association & Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 12(4), pages 301-18, Winter.
  23. Smith, Brian F. & Amoako-Adu, Ben, 1995. "Relative Prices of Dual Class Shares," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 30(02), pages 223-239, June.
  24. Morck, Randall & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1988. "Management ownership and market valuation : An empirical analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 293-315, January.
  25. McConnell, John J. & Servaes, Henri, 1990. "Additional evidence on equity ownership and corporate value," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 595-612, October.
  26. Daske, Stefan & Ehrhardt, Olaf, 2002. "Kursunterschiede und Renditen deutscher Stamm- und Vorzugsaktien," SFB 373 Discussion Papers 2002,5, Humboldt University of Berlin, Interdisciplinary Research Project 373: Quantification and Simulation of Economic Processes.
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