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The effect of early childhood development programs on women's labor force participation and older children's schooling in Kenya

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Author Info

  • Lokshin, Michael M.
  • Glinskaya, Elena
  • Garcia, Marito

Abstract

About 20,000 early childhood development centers provided day care for and prepared for primary school more than 1 million children aged three to seven (roughly 20 percent of children in that age group) in Kenya in 1995. The number of child care facilities reached 23,690 by the end of 1999. The authors analyze the effect of child care costs on households'behavior in Kenya. For households with children aged three to seven, they model household demand for mothers'participation in paid work, the participation in paid work of other household members, household demand for schooling, and household demand for child care. They find that: A) A high cost for child care discourages households from using formal child care facilities and has a negative effect on mothers'participation in market work. B) The cost of child care and the level of mothers'wages affect older children's school enrollment, but these factors affect boys'and girls'schooling differently. An increase in mothers'wages increases boys'enrollment but depresses girls'enrollment. C) Higher child care costs have no significant effect on boys'schooling but significantly decrease the number of girls in school.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 2376.

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Date of creation: 30 Jun 2000
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2376

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Keywords: Children and Youth; Public Health Promotion; Primary Education; Health Monitoring&Evaluation; Early Childhood Development; Children and Youth; Primary Education; Street Children; Early Childhood Development; Youth and Governance;

References

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  1. Connelly, Rachel & DeGraff, Deborah S & Levison, Deborah, 1996. "Women's Employment and Child Care in Brazil," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 44(3), pages 619-56, April.
  2. Mincer, Jacob & Polachek, Solomon, 1974. "Family Investment in Human Capital: Earnings of Women," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(2), pages S76-S108, Part II, .
  3. Blau, David M & Robins, Philip K, 1988. "Child-Care Costs and Family Labor Supply," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 70(3), pages 374-81, August.
  4. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
  5. Monica Fong & Lokshin, Michael, 2000. "Child care and women's labor force participation in Romania," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2400, The World Bank.
  6. Lokshin, Michael M., 1999. "Household childcare choices and women's work behavior in Russia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2206, The World Bank.
  7. Lawrence H. Summers, 1992. "Investing in All the People," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 31(4), pages 367-404.
  8. David M. Blau & Alison P. Hagy, 1998. "The Demand for Quality in Child Care," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(1), pages 104-146, February.
  9. Wong, Rebeca & Levine, Ruth E, 1992. "The Effect of Household Structure on Women's Economic Activity and Fertility: Evidence from Recent Mothers in Urban Mexico," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 41(1), pages 89-102, October.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Drusilla K. Brown & Alan V. Deardorff & Robert M Stern, 2002. "The Effects of Multinational Production on Wages and Working Conditions in Developing Countries," Working Papers 483, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
  2. Rana Ejaz Ali Khan & Karamat Ali, 2005. "Bargaining Over Sons' and Daughters' Schooling-Probit Analysis of Household Behavior," HEW, EconWPA 0505002, EconWPA.
  3. Patricia Apps, 2003. "Gender, Time Use and Models of the Household," CEPR Discussion Papers 464, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
  4. Breisinger, Clemens & van Rheenen, Teunis & Ringler, Claudia & Nin Pratt, Alejandro & Minot, Nicholas & Aragon, Catherine & Yu, Bingxin & Ecker, Olivier & Zhu, Tingju, 2010. "Food security and economic development in the Middle East and North Africa," IFPRI discussion papers 985, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  5. Vermeersch, Christel & Kremer, Michael, 2005. "Schools meals, educational achievement and school competition: evidence from a randomized evaluation," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3523, The World Bank.
  6. Toseef Azid & Rana Ejaz Ali Khan & Adnan M.S. Alamasi, 2010. "Labor force participation of married women in Punjab (Pakistan)," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 37(8), pages 592-612, July.
  7. World Bank, 2009. "Kenya - Poverty and Inequality Assessment : Executive Summary and Synthesis Report," World Bank Other Operational Studies 3081, The World Bank.
  8. Hirokazu Yoshikawa & Pia Rebello Britto & Jan Van Ravens & Liliana A. Ponguta & Soojin S. Oh & Roland Dimaya & Richard C. Seder & UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, 2013. "Understanding Governance of Early Childhood Development and Education Systems and Services in Low-Income Countries," Innocenti Working Papers inwopa699, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.
  9. Khan, Tasnim & Khan, Rana Ejaz Ali Khan, 2006. "Urban Informal Sector: How much Women are Struggling for Family Survival," MPRA Paper 17157, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  10. Breisinger, Clemens & Ecker, Olivier & Funes, Jose & Yu, Bingxin, 2010. "Food as the basis for development and security: A strategy for Yemen," IFPRI discussion papers 1036, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).

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