Investing in all the people
AbstractRecent research has convinced the author that once all the benefits are recognized, investment in the education of girls may be the highest return of investment available in the developing world. The author stresses five major points: (1) higher death rates are symptomatic of the more general pattern of female deprivation in the developing world; (2) underinvestment in girls is an economic problem resulting from a vicious cycle caused by distorted incentives; (3) educated women choose to have fewer children and can provide more for those they do have; (4) the social benefits alone of increased female education are more than sufficient to cover its costs; and (5) priorities should be to reduce the cost of schooling for girls and make special efforts to accommodate parent's practical needs. Major initiatives to increase female education can transform society over time. If more girls had gone to school a generation ago, millions of infant deaths could have been averted each year, and tens of millions of families could have been healthier and happier.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 905.
Date of creation: 31 May 1992
Date of revision:
Health Monitoring&Evaluation; Primary Education; Gender and Education; Adolescent Health; Agricultural Knowledge&Information Systems;
Other versions of this item:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Ben-Porath, Yoram & Welch, Finis, 1976. "Do Sex Preferences Really Matter?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 90(2), pages 285-307, May.
- Akhtar Hasan Khan, 1997. "Education in Pakistan: Fifty Years of Neglect," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 36(4), pages 647-667.
- Robert J. Barro & Jong-Wha Lee, 1993.
"International Comparisons of Educational Attainment,"
NBER Working Papers
4349, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Barro, Robert J. & Lee, Jong-Wha, 1993. "International comparisons of educational attainment," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 363-394, December.
- Mundle, Sudipto, 1998. "Financing human development: Some lessons from advanced Asian countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 659-672, April.
- Abu-Ghaida, Dina & Klasen, Stephan, 2004.
"The Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity,"
Elsevier, vol. 32(7), pages 1075-1107, July.
- Abu-Ghaida, Dina & Klasen, Stephan, 2003. "The Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity," Discussion Papers in Economics 2, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
- Abu-Ghaida, Dina & Klasen, Stephan, 2004. "The Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity," IZA Discussion Papers 1031, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Marcel Fafchamps & Agnes R. Quisumbing, .
"Human Capital, Productivity, and Labor Allocation in Rural Pakistan,"
97019, Stanford University, Department of Economics.
- Marcel Fafchamps & Agnes R. Quisumbing, 1999. "Human Capital, Productivity, and Labor Allocation in Rural Pakistan," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 34(2), pages 369-406.
- Fafchamps, Marcel & Quisumbing, Agnes R., 1998. "Human capital, productivity, and labor allocation in rural Pakistan," FCND discussion papers 48, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- P R Agénor & K C Neanidis, 2006. "Corruption Clubs: The Allocation of Public Expenditure and Economic Growth," Centre for Growth and Business Cycle Research Discussion Paper Series 69, Economics, The Univeristy of Manchester.
- Jere R. Behrman & Andrew D. Foster & Mark R. Rosenzweig & Prem Vashishtha, 1999.
"Women's Schooling, Home Teaching, and Economic Growth,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 107(4), pages 682-714, August.
- Jere Behrman & Andrew D. Foster & Mark Rosenzweig & Prem Vahsishtha, 1997. "Women's Schooling, Home Teaching, and Economic Growth," Home Pages _071, University of Pennsylvania.
- Bloom, David E. & Canning, David & Sevilla, Jaypee, 2004. "The Effect of Health on Economic Growth: A Production Function Approach," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 1-13, January.
- Yasuyuki Sawada, 1997. "Human Capital Investments in Pakistan: Implications of Micro Evidence from Rural Households," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 36(4), pages 695-712.
- Mingat, Alain, 1998. "The strategy used by high-performing Asian economies in education: Some lessons for developing countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 695-715, April.
- Behrman, Jere R., 1999. "Schooling in Asia: Selected microevidence on determinants, effects, and policy implications," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 147-194.
- Alderman, Harold & Behrman, Jere R. & Khan, Shahrukh & Ross, David R. & Sabot, Richard, 1996. "Decomposing the regional gap in cognitive skills in rural Pakistan," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 49-76.
- Lokshin, Michael M. & Glinskaya, Elena & Garcia, Marito, 2000. "The effect of early childhood development programs on women's labor force participation and older children's schooling in Kenya," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2376, The World Bank.
- Mansuri, Ghazala, 2006. "Migration,sex bias, and child growth in rural Pakistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3946, The World Bank.
- Anand, Sudhir & Sen, Amartya, 2000. "Human Development and Economic Sustainability," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(12), pages 2029-2049, December.
- Björkman, Martina, 2006. "Income Shocks and Gender Gaps in Education: Evidence from Uganda," Seminar Papers 744, Stockholm University, Institute for International Economic Studies.
- Mansuri, Ghazala, 2006. "Migration, school attainment, and child labor : evidence from rural Pakistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3945, The World Bank.
- Pritchett, Lant H. & DEC, 1994. "Desired fertility and the impact of population policies," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1273, The World Bank.
- Ali Khan, M., 2004. "Composite photography and statistical prejudice: Levy-Peart and Marshall on the theorist and the theorized," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 23-30, March.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.