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Investing in all the people

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  • Summers, Lawrence H.

Abstract

Recent research has convinced the author that once all the benefits are recognized, investment in the education of girls may be the highest return of investment available in the developing world. The author stresses five major points: (1) higher death rates are symptomatic of the more general pattern of female deprivation in the developing world; (2) underinvestment in girls is an economic problem resulting from a vicious cycle caused by distorted incentives; (3) educated women choose to have fewer children and can provide more for those they do have; (4) the social benefits alone of increased female education are more than sufficient to cover its costs; and (5) priorities should be to reduce the cost of schooling for girls and make special efforts to accommodate parent's practical needs. Major initiatives to increase female education can transform society over time. If more girls had gone to school a generation ago, millions of infant deaths could have been averted each year, and tens of millions of families could have been healthier and happier.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 905.

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Date of creation: 31 May 1992
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:905

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Related research

Keywords: Health Monitoring&Evaluation; Primary Education; Gender and Education; Adolescent Health; Agricultural Knowledge&Information Systems;

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References

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  1. M. Ali Khan, 1992. "On Measuring the Social Opportunity Cost of Labour in the Presence of Tariffs and an Informal Sector," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 31(4), pages 535-564.
  2. Ben-Porath, Yoram & Welch, Finis, 1976. "Do Sex Preferences Really Matter?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 90(2), pages 285-307, May.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Fafchamps, Marcel & Quisumbing, Agnes R., 1998. "Human capital, productivity, and labor allocation in rural Pakistan," FCND discussion papers, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 48, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  2. Yasuyuki Sawada, 1997. "Human Capital Investments in Pakistan: Implications of Micro Evidence from Rural Households," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 36(4), pages 695-712.
  3. Björkman, Martina, 2006. "Income Shocks and Gender Gaps in Education: Evidence from Uganda," Seminar Papers, Stockholm University, Institute for International Economic Studies 744, Stockholm University, Institute for International Economic Studies.
  4. Mundle, Sudipto, 1998. "Financing human development: Some lessons from advanced Asian countries," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 659-672, April.
  5. Lokshin, Michael M. & Glinskaya, Elena & Garcia, Marito, 2000. "The effect of early childhood development programs on women's labor force participation and older children's schooling in Kenya," Policy Research Working Paper Series, The World Bank 2376, The World Bank.
  6. Bloom, David E. & Canning, David & Sevilla, Jaypee, 2004. "The Effect of Health on Economic Growth: A Production Function Approach," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 1-13, January.
  7. Mansuri, Ghazala, 2006. "Migration, school attainment, and child labor : evidence from rural Pakistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series, The World Bank 3945, The World Bank.
  8. Anand, Sudhir & Sen, Amartya, 2000. "Human Development and Economic Sustainability," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 28(12), pages 2029-2049, December.
  9. Abu-Ghaida, Dina & Klasen, Stephan, 2004. "The Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity," IZA Discussion Papers 1031, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. Akhtar Hasan Khan, 1997. "Education in Pakistan: Fifty Years of Neglect," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 36(4), pages 647-667.
  11. Barro, Robert J. & Lee, Jong-Wha, 1993. "International comparisons of educational attainment," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 363-394, December.
  12. Ali Khan, M., 2004. "Composite photography and statistical prejudice: Levy-Peart and Marshall on the theorist and the theorized," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 23-30, March.
  13. Jere R. Behrman & Andrew D. Foster & Mark R. Rosenzweig & Prem Vashishtha, 1999. "Women's Schooling, Home Teaching, and Economic Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 107(4), pages 682-714, August.
  14. Pritchett, Lant H. & DEC, 1994. "Desired fertility and the impact of population policies," Policy Research Working Paper Series, The World Bank 1273, The World Bank.
  15. Behrman, Jere R., 1999. "Schooling in Asia: Selected microevidence on determinants, effects, and policy implications," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 147-194.
  16. Mansuri, Ghazala, 2006. "Migration,sex bias, and child growth in rural Pakistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series, The World Bank 3946, The World Bank.
  17. Mingat, Alain, 1998. "The strategy used by high-performing Asian economies in education: Some lessons for developing countries," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 695-715, April.
  18. World Bank, 2005. "Pakistan : Country Gender Assessment, Bridging the Gender Gap, Opportunities and Challenges," World Bank Other Operational Studies 8453, The World Bank.
  19. Alderman, Harold & Behrman, Jere R. & Khan, Shahrukh & Ross, David R. & Sabot, Richard, 1996. "Decomposing the regional gap in cognitive skills in rural Pakistan," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 49-76.

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