Urban Informal Sector: How much Women are Struggling for Family Survival
AbstractAbstract: The paper analyzed the contribution of informally employed women (for the age group of 16-60 years) in their household budget. The urban informal sector absorbs the women workers largely. What are the determinants of their contribution in their household budgets to make survival of the families is the core of the study. Applying OLS model on 937 observations it is found that women as head of household, women’s education, and ownership of assets by woman have positive effect on contribution. The burden of the large family size, household poverty and loan availed by the household is shared by the informally employed women, as these variables positively affect their contribution. Age of the woman has a non-linear effect on woman’s contribution. First the contribution increases and then decreases by increase in age of the woman. Married women and women living in nuclear families contribute more to household budget. The household per capita income and number of children (5-15 years) in the household have shown negative effect on contribution of women in household budget. The household’s economic vulnerability due to unemployment of husband and lower productivity caused by lower education of husband is also largely shared by the urban informally employed women, i.e. they struggle more for family survival. However, number of adult males in the household decreases the volume of contribution of woman and burden on woman is relaxed.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 17157.
Date of creation: Aug 2006
Date of revision:
Women; Household Economics; Labor Supply; Female Employment; Poverty.;
Other versions of this item:
- Tasnim Khan & Rana Ejaz Ali Khan, 2009. "Urban Informal Sector: How Much Women Are Struggling for Family Survival," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 48(1), pages 67-95.
- J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
- O15 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
- J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
- J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Zareen F. Naqvi & Lubna Shahnaz, 2002. "How Do Women Decide to Work in Pakistan?," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 41(4), pages 495-513.
- Larry E. Jones & Rodolfo E. Manuelli & Ellen R. McGrattan, 2003. "Why are married women working so much?," Staff Report 317, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Zeba A. sathar & Shahnaz Kazi, 1989. "Female Employment and Fertility: Further Investigation of an Ambivalent Association," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 28(3), pages 175-194.
- Mridul Eapen, 2004. "Women and work mobility: Some disquieting evidences from the Indian data," Centre for Development Studies, Trivendrum Working Papers 358, Centre for Development Studies, Trivendrum, India.
- Gonzalez, Libertad, 2004. "Single Mothers and Work," IZA Discussion Papers 1097, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Vani Borooah & Patricia McKee, 1996. "How much did working wives contribute to changes in income inequality between couples in the UK?," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 17(1), pages 59-78, February.
- Nargis Sultana & Hina Nazli & Sohail J. Malik, 1994. "Determinants of Female Time Allocation in Selected Districts of Rural Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 33(4), pages 1141-1153.
- Duncan, Kevin C. & Prus, Mark J. & Sandy, Jonathan G., 1993. "Marital status, children and women's labor market choices," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 277-288.
- Lokshin, Michael M. & Glinskaya, Elena & Garcia, Marito, 2000. "The effect of early childhood development programs on women's labor force participation and older children's schooling in Kenya," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2376, The World Bank.
- Doss, Cheryl R., 1996. "Women'S Bargaining Power In Household Economic Decisions: Evidence From Ghana," Staff Papers 13517, University of Minnesota, Department of Applied Economics.
- Ranjan Ray, 2000. "Poverty and expenditure pattern of households in Pakistan and South Africa: a comparative study," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(2), pages 241-256.
- Behrman, Jere R. & Rosenzweig, Mark R., 1994. "Caveat emptor: Cross-country data on education and the labor force," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 147-171, June.
- repec:ese:iserwp:2001-19 is not listed on IDEAS
- Mario Biggeri & Santosh Mehrotra, 2002. "Social Protection in the Informal Economy: Home based women workers and outsourced manufacturing in Asia," Innocenti Working Papers inwopa02/24, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.
- Louat, F. & Grosh, M.E. & Van Der Gaag, J., 1993. "Welfare Implications of Female Headship in Jamaican Households," Papers 96, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
- A. Haroon Akram-Lodhi, 1996. "“You are not excused from cooking”: Peasants and the gender division of labor in Pakistan," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 2(2), pages 87-105.
- Luisa Escriche & Gonzalo Olcina & Rosario Sánchez, 2004. "Gender discrimination and intergenerational transmission of preferences," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 56(3), pages 485-511, July.
- Kathryn Shaw, 2005. "Women's contribution to productivity," Regional Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue Q 1, pages 44-48.
- Shahnaz Hamid, 1991. "Determinants of the Supply of Women in the Labour Market: A Micro Analysis," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 30(4), pages 755-766.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.