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Labor force participation of married women in Punjab (Pakistan)

Contents:

Author Info

  • Toseef Azid
  • Rana Ejaz Ali Khan
  • Adnan M.S. Alamasi

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to highlight the factors that influence the decision of married women (in the age group of 16-60 years) to participate in labor force activities. Design/methodology/approach – This is an empirical study employing the non-linear maximum likelihood probability (probit) function on primary data (3,911 observations). Findings – Besides other variables it has been observed that poverty remains an important determinant of female labor participation. Research limitations/implications – On the basis of this paper, a socio-economic policy can be formulated for a developing country like Pakistan. Practical implications – A development policy (especially considering the gender aspects) can be formulated on the basis of this research for the enhancement of human resource development for a developing and an orthodox economy like Pakistan. Originality/value – This paper is beneficial to researchers, policy makers, and social scientists for the enhancement of the level of social welfare and equity through its findings.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Emerald Group Publishing in its journal International Journal of Social Economics.

Volume (Year): 37 (2010)
Issue (Month): 8 (July)
Pages: 592-612

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Handle: RePEc:eme:ijsepp:v:37:y:2010:i:8:p:592-612

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Related research

Keywords: Developing countries; Employment; Pakistan; Poverty; Women workers;

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
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  1. Levine, Victor & Moock, Peter R., 1984. "Labor force experience and earnings: Women with children," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 183-193, June.
  2. Young, Alwyn, 1995. "The Tyranny of Numbers: Confronting the Statistical Realities of the East Asian Growth Experience," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 110(3), pages 641-80, August.
  3. Shahnaz Hamid, 1991. "Determinants of the Supply of Women in the Labour Market: A Micro Analysis," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 30(4), pages 755-766.
  4. Nargis Sultana & Hina Nazli & Sohail J. Malik, 1994. "Determinants of Female Time Allocation in Selected Districts of Rural Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 33(4), pages 1141-1153.
  5. Lokshin, Michael M. & Glinskaya, Elena & Garcia, Marito, 2000. "The effect of early childhood development programs on women's labor force participation and older children's schooling in Kenya," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2376, The World Bank.
  6. Sonia Jesmin & Sarah Salway, 2000. "Marriage among the urban poor of Dhaka: instability and uncertainty," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(5), pages 689-705.
  7. Thomas, D., 1989. "Intra-Household Resource Allocation: An Inferential Approach," Papers 586, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
  8. Ranjan Ray, 2000. "Poverty and expenditure pattern of households in Pakistan and South Africa: a comparative study," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(2), pages 241-256.
  9. Heckman, James J, 1974. "Shadow Prices, Market Wages, and Labor Supply," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 42(4), pages 679-94, July.
  10. Zareen F. Naqvi & Lubna Shahnaz, 2002. "How Do Women Decide to Work in Pakistan?," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 41(4), pages 495-513.
  11. Behrman, Jere R. & Rosenzweig, Mark R., 1994. "Caveat emptor: Cross-country data on education and the labor force," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 147-171, June.
  12. Duncan, Kevin C. & Prus, Mark J. & Sandy, Jonathan G., 1993. "Marital status, children and women's labor market choices," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 277-288.
  13. Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Haddad, Lawrence & Pena, Christine, 2001. "Are women overrepresented among the poor? An analysis of poverty in 10 developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 225-269, October.
  14. Ofer, Gur & Vinokur, Aaron, 1983. "The labor-force participation of married women in the Soviet Union: A household cross-section analysis," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 158-176, June.
  15. Louat, F. & Grosh, M.E. & Van Der Gaag, J., 1993. "Welfare Implications of Female Headship in Jamaican Households," Papers 96, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
  16. Shahnaz kazi & Bilquees Raza, 1991. "Duality of Female Employment in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 30(4), pages 733-743.
  17. repec:ese:iserwp:2001-19 is not listed on IDEAS
  18. Jaisri Gangadharan & Joshua Rosenbloom & Joyce Jacobson & James Wishart Pearre III, 1996. "The Effects of Child-Bearing on Married Women's Labor Supply and Earnings: Using Twin Births as a Natural Experiment," NBER Working Papers 5647, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Apps, Patricia & Rees, Ray, 2001. "Fertility, Female Labor Supply and Public Policy," IZA Discussion Papers 409, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  20. Salway, Sarah & Rahman, Shahana & Jesmin, Sonia, 2003. "A Profile of Women's Work Participation Among the Urban Poor of Dhaka," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 881-901, May.
  21. Naushin Mahmood & Durr-E-Nayab, 1998. "Gender Dimensions of Demographic Change in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 37(4), pages 705-725.
  22. Hartog, Joop & Theeuwes, Jules, 1986. "Participation and hours of work: Two stages in the life-cycle of married women," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 833-857, August.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Makino, Momoe, 2012. "What motivates female operators to enter the garment industry in Pakistan in the post-MFA period?," IDE Discussion Papers 374, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).

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