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Poverty and expenditure pattern of households in Pakistan and South Africa: a comparative study

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  • Ranjan Ray

    (University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia)

Abstract

This paper compares the poverty rates of male- and female-headed households in Pakistan and, also, in South Africa. It finds that in South Africa, female-headed households are unconditionally poorer than the others. In Pakistan, however, this result holds only in the presence of economies of household size and adult|child consumption relativities, not in the per capita case. The study estimates equivalence scales in the presence of non-linearities in the functional form, and provides evidence of significant economies of household size in both countries. The paper proposes an alternative test of gender bias in the intrahousehold allocation of resources, and applies it to the Pakistani and South African data sets. The results point to some interesting dissimilarities between the Pakistani and South African evidence. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. in its journal Journal of International Development.

Volume (Year): 12 (2000)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages: 241-256

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Handle: RePEc:wly:jintdv:v:12:y:2000:i:2:p:241-256

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References

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  1. Haddad, L. & Kanbur, R., 1989. "How Serious Is The Neglectof Intra-Household Inequality?," Papers, Stockholm - International Economic Studies 450, Stockholm - International Economic Studies.
  2. Dreze, Jean & Srinivasan, P. V., 1997. "Widowhood and poverty in rural India: Some inferences from household survey data," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 54(2), pages 217-234, December.
  3. J.V. Meenakshi & Ranjan Ray, 1999. "Impact of Household Size, Family Composition and Socio Economic Characteristics on Poverty in Rural India," Working papers, Centre for Development Economics, Delhi School of Economics 68, Centre for Development Economics, Delhi School of Economics.
  4. Lancaster, Geoffrey & Ray, Ranjan & Valenzuela, Maria Rebecca, 1999. "A Cross-Country Study of Household Poverty and Inequality on Unit Record Household Budget Data," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 48(1), pages 177-208, October.
  5. Bosch-Domenech, Antoni, 1991. "Economies of scale, location, age, and sex discrimination in household demand," European Economic Review, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 35(8), pages 1589-1595, December.
  6. Foster, James & Greer, Joel & Thorbecke, Erik, 1984. "A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 761-66, May.
  7. Lancaster, Geoffrey & Ray, Ranjan, 1998. "Comparison of Alternative Models of Household Equivalence Scales: The Australian Evidence on Unit Record Data," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 74(224), pages 1-14, March.
  8. Quibria, M G, 1995. " Gender and Poverty: Issues and Policies with Special Reference to Asian Developing Countries," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(4), pages 373-411, December.
  9. Subramaniam, Ramesh, 1996. "Gender-Bias in India: The Importance of Household Fixed-Effects," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 48(2), pages 280-99, April.
  10. Haddad, L. & Hoddinott, J., 1991. "Gender Aspects of Household Expenditures and Resource Allocation in the Cote d'Ivoire," Economics Series Working Papers, University of Oxford, Department of Economics 99112, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  11. Grosh, M.E. & Glewwe, P., 1995. "A Guide to Living Standards Measurement Study Surveys and their Data Sets," Papers, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement 120, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
  12. Handa, Sudhanshu, 1996. "Expenditure behavior and children's welfare: An analysis of female headed households in Jamaica," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 165-187, June.
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Cited by:
  1. Aleksandr Vashchilko, 2012. "Households' Expenditure Patterns in Belarus," BEROC Working Paper Series 20, Belarusian Economic Research and Outreach Center (BEROC).
  2. Tasnim Khan & Rana Ejaz Ali Khan, 2009. "Urban Informal Sector: How Much Women Are Struggling for Family Survival," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 48(1), pages 67-95.
  3. Megan Louw & Servaas van der Berg & Derek Yu, 2006. "Educational attainment and intergenerational social mobility in South Africa," Working Papers 09/2006, Stellenbosch University, Department of Economics.
  4. Dorrit Posel & Michael Rogan, 2012. "Gendered trends in poverty in the post-apartheid period, 1997--2006," Development Southern Africa, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(1), pages 97-113, March.
  5. Pushkar Maitra & Ranjan Ray, 2003. "Resource inflows and household composition: evidence from South African panel data," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(8), pages 1037-1047.
  6. Toseef Azid & Rana Ejaz Ali Khan & Adnan M.S. Alamasi, 2010. "Labor force participation of married women in Punjab (Pakistan)," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 37(8), pages 592-612, July.
  7. Maitra, Pushkar & Ray, Ranjan, 2003. "The effect of transfers on household expenditure patterns and poverty in South Africa," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 23-49, June.
  8. Michael Rogan, 2012. "Poverty and headship in post-apartheid South Africa, 1997-2008," Working Papers 288, Economic Research Southern Africa.
  9. Pushkar Maitra, 2002. "The Effect of Household Characteristics on Poverty and Living Standards in South Africa," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 27(1), pages 75-96, June.

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