How child labor and child schooling interact with adult labor
AbstractUsing data from Peruvian and Pakistani household surveys, the author tests the hypotheses of a positive association between child labor hours and poverty and a negative association between child schooling and poverty. Both hypotheses are confirmed using Pakistani data but not using Peruvian data. What explains these divergent results? The link between household poverty and child labor is much stronger in Pakistan than in Peru - perhaps partly because Pakistani schools are not as good as those in Peru, and perhaps partly because Pakistani families value education less, especially for girls. Also, Peruvian children combine schooling with employment, unlike Pakistani children. Rising wages for men significantly reduce the labor hours of Peruvian girls. Strong complementarity exists between the labor market for women and that for girls in Pakistan. Providing good schools in South Asia could help reduce child labor and break the strong link there between poverty and hours spent in child labor. Data from both countries confirm the positive role more adult education can play in improving child welfare. Adult education's impact on child labor is considerably greater in Pakistan than in Peru. One generation's lack of skills and education causes the next to remain un-educated and unskilled as well.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 2179.
Date of creation: 30 Sep 1999
Date of revision:
Children and Youth; Street Children; Public Health Promotion; Health Monitoring&Evaluation; Child Labor Law; Adolescent Health; Street Children; Health Monitoring&Evaluation; Children and Youth; Child Labor;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jensen, P. & Nielsen, H.S., 1996.
"Child Labour or School Attendance? Evidence from Zambia,"
96-14, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research, Danmark-.
- Peter Jensen & Helena Skyt Nielsen, 1997. "Child labour or school attendance? Evidence from Zambia," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 407-424.
- Alderman, Harold, et al, 1995. "Unitary versus Collective Models of the Household: Is It Time to Shift the Burden of Proof?," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 10(1), pages 1-19, February.
- Alderman, H. & Chiappori, P.A. & Haddad, L., 1994.
"Unitary versus Collective Models of the Household: Time to Shift the Burden of Proof?,"
DELTA Working Papers
94-17, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
- Chiappori, Pierre-Andre & Haddad, Lawrence & Hoddinott, John & Kanbur, Ravi, 1993. "Unitary versus collective models of the household : time to shift theburden of proof?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1217, The World Bank.
- George Psacharopoulos, 1997. "Child labor versus educational attainment Some evidence from Latin America," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 377-386.
- Ranjan Ray, 2000.
"Analysis of child labour in Peru and Pakistan: A comparative study,"
Journal of Population Economics,
Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 3-19.
- Ray, R., 1998. "Analysis of Child Labour in Peru and Pakistan: a Comparative Study," Papers 1998-05, Tasmania - Department of Economics.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R & Evenson, Robert E, 1977. "Fertility, Schooling, and the Economic Contribution of Children in Rural India: An Econometric Analysis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 45(5), pages 1065-79, July.
- Sonia Bhalotra, 2003. "Child Labour in Africa," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 4, OECD Publishing.
- Basu, Kaushik, 1998.
"Child labor : cause, consequence, and cure, with remarks on International Labor Standards,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2027, The World Bank.
- Kaushik Basu, 1999. "Child Labor: Cause, Consequence, and Cure, with Remarks on International Labor Standards," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(3), pages 1083-1119, September.
- Charles Diamond & Tammy Fayed, 1998. "Evidence on substitutability of adult and child labour," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(3), pages 62-70.
- Grosh, M.E. & Glewwe, P., 1995. "A Guide to Living Standards Measurement Study Surveys and their Data Sets," Papers 120, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
- Ray, Ranjan, 1983. "Measuring the costs of children : An alternative approach," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 89-102, October.
- George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 1997. "Family size, schooling and child labor in Peru - An empirical analysis," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 387-405.
- Lancaster, Geoffrey & Ray, Ranjan & Valenzuela, Maria Rebecca, 1999. "A Cross-Country Study of Household Poverty and Inequality on Unit Record Household Budget Data," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 48(1), pages 177-208, October.
- Basu, Kaushik & Van, Pham Hoang, 1998. "The Economics of Child Labor," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 412-27, June.
- Harper, Caroline & Marcus, Rachel & Moore, Karen, 2003. "Enduring Poverty and the Conditions of Childhood: Lifecourse and Intergenerational Poverty Transmissions," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 535-554, March.
- Drusilla K. Brown & Alan V. Deardorff & Robert M Stern, 2002.
"The Effects of Multinational Production on Wages and Working Conditions in Developing Countries,"
486, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
- Drusilla K. Brown & Alan Deardorff & Robert Stern, 2004. "The Effects of Multinational Production on Wages and Working Conditions in Developing Countries," NBER Chapters, in: Challenges to Globalization: Analyzing the Economics, pages 279-330 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Drusilla K. Brown & Alan V. Deardorff & Robert M Stern, 2002. "The Effects of Multinational Production on Wages and Working Conditions in Developing Countries," Working Papers 483, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
- Drusilla K. Brown & Alan V. Deardorff & Robert M. Stern, 2003. "The Effects of Multinational Production on Wages and Working Conditions in Developing Countries," NBER Working Papers 9669, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- World Bank, 2001. "Risk Management in South Asia : A Poverty Focused Approach," World Bank Other Operational Studies 15449, The World Bank.
- Pallage, Stephane & Zimmermann, Christian, 2007.
"Buying out child labor,"
Journal of Macroeconomics,
Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 75-90, March.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.