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The Influence of Market Wages and Parental History on Child Labour and Schooling in Egypt

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  • Wahba, Jackline

    ()
    (University of Southampton)

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    Abstract

    This paper examines the influence of adult market wages and having parents who were child labourers on child labour, when this decision is jointly determined with child schooling, using data from Egypt. The empirical results suggest that low adult market wages are key determinants of child labour; a 10 percent increase in the illiterate male market wage decreases the probability of child labour by 22 percent for boys and 13 percent for girls. The findings also indicate the importance of social norms in the inter-generational persistence of child labour: parents who were child labourers themselves are on average 10 percent more likely to send their children to work. In addition, higher local regional income inequality increases the likelihood of child labour.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 1771.

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    Length: 45 pages
    Date of creation: Sep 2005
    Date of revision:
    Publication status: published in: Journal of Population Economics, 2006, 19 (4), 823-852
    Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp1771

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    Keywords: wages; child schooling; child labour;

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    1. Ranjan Ray, 2000. "Analysis of child labour in Peru and Pakistan: A comparative study," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 3-19.
    2. Sonia Bhalotra, 2007. "Is Child Work Necessary?," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 69(1), pages 29-55, 02.
    3. Jensen, P. & Nielsen, H.S., 1996. "Child Labour or School Attendance? Evidence from Zambia," Papers, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research, Danmark- 96-14, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research, Danmark-.
    4. Solon, Gary, 1999. "Intergenerational mobility in the labor market," Handbook of Labor Economics, Elsevier, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 29, pages 1761-1800 Elsevier.
    5. Bhalotra, Sonia & Heady, Christopher, 2001. "Child farm labour : the wealth paradox," Social Protection Discussion Papers 24088, The World Bank.
    6. Kaushik Basu, 1999. "Child Labor: Cause, Consequence, and Cure, with Remarks on International Labor Standards," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 37(3), pages 1083-1119, September.
    7. Mary Corcoran & Roger H. Gordon & Deborah Laren & Gary Solon, 1989. "Effects of Family and Community Background on Men's Economic Status," NBER Working Papers 2896, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 1997. "Family size, schooling and child labor in Peru - An empirical analysis," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 387-405.
    9. Canagarajah, Sudharshan & Coulombe, Harold, 1997. "Child labor and schooling in Ghana," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1844, The World Bank.
    10. Corcoran, Mary, et al, 1990. "Effects of Family and Community Background on Economic Status," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 80(2), pages 362-66, May.
    11. Ranjan, Priya, 1999. "An economic analysis of child labor," Economics Letters, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 99-105, July.
    12. Charles Diamond & Tammy Fayed, 1998. "Evidence on substitutability of adult and child labour," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(3), pages 62-70.
    13. Basu, Kaushik & Van, Pham Hoang, 1998. "The Economics of Child Labor," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 412-27, June.
    14. Levy, Victor, 1985. "Cropping Pattern, Mechanization, Child Labor, and Fertility Behavior in a Farming Economy: Rural Egypt," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(4), pages 777-91, July.
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