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How Early Childhood Interventions Can Reduce Inequality: An Overview of Recent Findings

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  • Ruthanne Deutsch
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    Abstract

    Early Childhood Interventions (ECI) are ideally designed to achieve a series of mutually reinforcing objectives with the overarching goal of helping to improve equality of opportunity for children in poverty. In this discussion the authors analize programs targeted to overcome some or all of the cognitive, emotional, and resource limitations that may characterize the environments of disadvantaged children during the first several years of life. Section II of this paper presents a review of findings that attempt to measure the short-term or immediate benefits of early childhood interventions. Section III reviews the literature that addresses the longer term benefits of early childhood interventions, such as program participants' improved school performance and earnings opportunities in later years, and a reduced probability for program participants to later engage in criminal or violent acts. Section IV summarizes the economic rationale for public support of ECI programs. In the final Section V we address some of the policy and operational issues involved in designing and implementing early childhood intervenion programs.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Inter-American Development Bank in its series IDB Publications with number 50998.

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    Date of creation: Dec 1998
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:idb:brikps:50998

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    Related research

    Keywords: Teacher Education & Quality; Poverty; Youth & Children; Early Childhood Education; ECI; longer-term benefits; immediate benefits; inequality;

    References

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    1. Blau, David M & Robins, Philip K, 1988. "Child-Care Costs and Family Labor Supply," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 70(3), pages 374-81, August.
    2. Behrman, Jere R., 1993. "The economic rationale for investing in nutrition in developing countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 21(11), pages 1749-1771, November.
    3. Ruthanne Deutsch, 1998. "Does Child Care Pay?: Labor Force Participation and Earnings Effects of Access to Child Care in the Favelas of Rio de Janeiro," IDB Publications 6445, Inter-American Development Bank.
    4. Connelly, Rachel, 1992. "The Effect of Child Care Costs on Married Women's Labor Force Participation," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(1), pages 83-90, February.
    5. Gustafsson, Siv & Jacobsson, Roger, 1985. "Trends in Female Labor Force Participation in Sweden," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(1), pages S256-74, January.
    6. Louis Putterman & John E. Roemer & Joaquim Silvestre, . "Does Egalitarianism Have A Future?," Department of Economics 96-09, California Davis - Department of Economics.
    7. Ribar, D.C., 1991. "A Structural Model of Child Care and the Labor Supply of Married Women," Papers 1-91-1, Pennsylvania State - Department of Economics.
    8. Arleen Leibowitz & Jacob Alex Klerman & Linda J. Waite, 1992. "Employment of New Mothers and Child Care Choice: Differences by Children's Age," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 27(1), pages 112-133.
    9. Besley, Timothy & Coate, Stephen, 1991. "Public Provision of Private Goods and the Redistribution of Income," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(4), pages 979-84, September.
    10. Siv Gustafsson & Frank Stafford, 1992. "Child Care Subsidies and Labor Supply in Sweden," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 27(1), pages 204-230.
    11. Berger, Mark C & Black, Dan A, 1992. "Child Care Subsidies, Quality of Care, and the Labor Supply of Low-Income, Single Mothers," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(4), pages 635-42, November.
    12. Robins, Philip K. & Spiegelman, Robert G., 1979. "The economics of child care and public policy," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 55-74.
    13. Gaviria, Alejandro, 2002. "Intergenerational mobility, sibling inequality and borrowing constraints," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 331-340, August.
    14. John R. Lott, Jr., 1987. "Why Is Education Publicly Provided? A Critical Survey," Cato Journal, Cato Journal, Cato Institute, vol. 7(2), pages 475-501, Fall.
    15. Charles Michalopoulos & Philip K. Robins & Irwin Garfinkel, 1992. "A Structural Model of Labor Supply and Child Care Demand," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 27(1), pages 166-203.
    16. Connelly, Rachel & DeGraff, Deborah S & Levison, Deborah, 1996. "Women's Employment and Child Care in Brazil," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 44(3), pages 619-56, April.
    17. Robins, Philip K & Spiegelman, Robert G, 1978. "An Econometric Model of the Demand for Child Care," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 16(1), pages 83-94, January.
    18. Haddad, Lawrence & Hoddinott, John & Alderman, Harold & DEC, 1994. "Intrahousehold resource allocation : an overview," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1255, The World Bank.
    19. Lehrer, Evelyn L, 1989. "Preschoolers with Working Mothers: An Analysis of the Determinants of Child Care Arrangements," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 1(4), pages 251-68.
    20. Behrman, Jere R, 1996. "The Impact of Health and Nutrition on Education," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 11(1), pages 23-37, February.
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    Cited by:
    1. Paglayan, Agustina S., 2008. "Reading between the lines: A closer look at the effectiveness of early childhood education policy to reduce inequality in Argentina," MPRA Paper 17899, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised May 2009.
    2. repec:idb:brikps:52858 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Shahin Yaqub, 2002. "'Poor children grow into poor adults': harmful mechanisms or over-deterministic theory?," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(8), pages 1081-1093.
    4. World Bank, 2011. "Work and Family : Latin American and Caribbean Women in Search of a New Balance," World Bank Other Operational Studies 12489, The World Bank.
    5. repec:idb:brikps:29338 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. repec:idb:brikps:54818 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. repec:idb:brikps:29898 is not listed on IDEAS

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