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Panel Unit Root Tests in the Presence of Cross-Sectional Dependencies: Comparison and Implications for Modelling

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  • Gengenbach,Christian
  • Palm,Franz
  • Urbain,Jean-Pierre

    (METEOR)

Abstract

Several panel unit root tests that account for cross section dependence using a common factor structure have been proposed in the literature recently, notably Pesaran (2003), Moon and Perron (2004) and Bai and Ng (2004). This paper is aimed at comparing these three proposed unit root tests for panels with dynamic factors. It makes fourcontributions: (1) it compares the three testing procedures in terms of similarities and difference in the data generation process, tests, null and alternative hypotheses considered,(2) it compares the small sample properties of the tests usingMonte Carlo results in models with up to two common factors, (3) it provides an application which illustrates the use of the tests, and (4) finally it discusses the use of the tests in modelling in general. The main conclusions are: Pesaran’s (2003) cross-sectionally augmented (CA)DF tests are designed for cases where cross-sectional dependence is due to a single factor. The Moon and Perron (2004) tests which use defactored data is similar in spirit but can account for mutiple common factors. The Bai and Ng (2004) tests allow to tests for unit roots in the common factors and/or the idiosyncratic factors. It would therefore be natural to use the Pesaran (2003) or Moon and Perron tests in a first step to find out whether there are unit roots in the data. Then in a second step of modelling, the Bai and Ng (2004) tests could be used to determine whether the unit roots arise in the common factors or in the idiosyncratic components. It is also found that the latter behave well when the observed nonstationarity in the data series comes exclusively from nonstationary common factors, e.g. when the series cointegrate along the cross sectional dimension of the panel.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Maastricht University, Maastricht Research School of Economics of Technology and Organization (METEOR) in its series Research Memorandum with number 040.

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Date of creation: 2004
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Handle: RePEc:unm:umamet:2004040

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Keywords: econometrics;

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References

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  1. Donald W.K. Andrews & Christopher J. Monahan, 1990. "An Improved Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 942, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  2. Lyhagen, Johan, 2000. "Why not use standard panel unit root test for testing PPP," Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 413, Stockholm School of Economics.
  3. Jushan Bai & Serena Ng, 2000. "Determining the Number of Factors in Approximate Factor Models," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 1504, Econometric Society.
  4. Jushan Bai & Serena Ng, 2004. "A PANIC Attack on Unit Roots and Cointegration," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 72(4), pages 1127-1177, 07.
  5. Pasaran, M.H. & Im, K.S. & Shin, Y., 1995. "Testing for Unit Roots in Heterogeneous Panels," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9526, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  6. MOON, Hyungsik Roger & PERRON, Benoit., 2002. "Testing for a Unit Root in Panels with Dynamic Factors," Cahiers de recherche 2002-18, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
  7. Yoosoon Chang, 2000. "Nonlinear IV Unit Root Tests in Panels with Cross-Sectional Dependency," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-85, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
  8. Oh, Keun-Yeob, 1996. "Purchasing power parity and unit root tests using panel data," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 405-418, June.
  9. Anindya Banerjee & Massimiliano Marcellino & Chiara Osbat, . "Some Cautions on the Use of Panel Methods for Integrated Series of Macro-Economic Data," Working Papers 170, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
  10. Choi, In, 2001. "Unit root tests for panel data," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 249-272, April.
  11. Banerjee, Anindya & Massimiliano Marcellino & Chiara Osbat, 2002. "Testing for PPP: Should We Use Panel Methods?," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2002 13, Royal Economic Society.
  12. Renato Flôres & Philippe Jorion & Pierre-Yves Preumont & Ariane Szafarz, 1999. "Multivariate Unit root Tests of the PPP Hypothesis," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/711, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  13. Peter C. B. Phillips & Donggyu Sul, 2003. "Dynamic panel estimation and homogeneity testing under cross section dependence *," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 6(1), pages 217-259, 06.
  14. Donald W.K. Andrews, 1988. "Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 877R, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University, revised Jul 1989.
  15. Aznar, Antonio & Salvador, Manuel, 2002. "Selecting The Rank Of The Cointegration Space And The Form Of The Intercept Using An Information Criterion," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 18(04), pages 926-947, August.
  16. Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002. "Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
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