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The Impact of Trade Liberalization on Micro Enterprises: Do Banks Matter? Evidence from Indian Manufacturing

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  • Asha Sundaram

Abstract

This paper looks at the impact of trade liberalization on output, factor intensity and labor productivity of micro enterprises with differential access to banks. It uses Indian data on micro enterprises employing fewer than ten workers in the manufacturing sector and finds that trade liberalization, measured by a fall in the tariff, is associated with higher enterprise output, capital-labor ratios and labor productivity in districts with a larger number of bank branches per capita. Evidence is consistent with strong complementarities between trade liberalization effects and better access to credit and greater economic dynamism due to greater bank presence in the enterprise’s location. In addition, the research points to greater likelihood of outsourcing of production activity to micro enterprises in more open industries. The study highlights the role of credit market institutions, labor regulation and linkages between micro enterprises and large firms in determining the effects of trade liberalization on developing country manufacturing.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Economic Research Southern Africa in its series Working Papers with number 225.

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Length: 34 pages
Date of creation: 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:rza:wpaper:225

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Keywords: Trade Reform; Banks; Manufacturing; Informal Firms; Productivity; Outsourcing;

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References

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  1. David J. McKenzie & Christopher Woodruff, 2006. "Do Entry Costs Provide an Empirical Basis for Poverty Traps? Evidence from Mexican Microenterprises," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 55, pages 3-42.
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  16. Lisa Daniels, 2003. "Factors that influence the expansion of the microenterprise sector: results from three national surveys in Zimbabwe," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(6), pages 675-692.
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  22. Akoten, John E & Sawada, Yasuyuki & Otsuka, Keijiro, 2006. "The Determinants of Credit Access and Its Impacts on Micro and Small Enterprises: The Case of Garment Producers in Kenya," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 54(4), pages 927-44, July.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Asha Sundaram & Reshad Ahsan & Devashish Mitra, 2012. "Complementarity between Formal and Informal Manufacturing in India: The Role of Policies and Institutions," Working Papers 1116, School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University, revised Apr 2012.
  2. J.Salcedo Cain & Rana Hasan & Devashish Mitra, 2010. "Trade Liberalization and Poverty Reduction: New Evidence from Indian States," Working Papers 3333, School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University, revised Nov 2010.

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