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Environmental regulation in the presence of unrecorded economy

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  • Karanfil, Fatih

    ()
    (Galatasaray University Economic Research Center)

Abstract

Unrecorded economic activities have an important weight, especially in developing countries where environmental regulations are gradually pursued. Both theoretical and empirical studies on the subject which do not take into account the existence of unrecorded economy may not provide a complete insight on the effects of both fiscal and environmental enforcement policies. After a brief review of the relevant literature, this paper develops an economic model to analyze the potential impacts of environmental regulatory policies on the size of unrecorded economy. Two dierent cases are considered: first, firms' emissions and productions are audited with exogenous probabilities which may be different from each other; second, a unique probability-to-audit function is determined to audit both emissions and productions of firms whether in recorded or unrecorded economy. The form of this function is specied using the cointegration technique. The results in this paper essentially show that environmental regulations may increase the size of unrecorded economy. The paper also attempts to give a precise limit value for the environmental tax rate exceeding which may induce a rise in the extent of unrecorded activities.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Galatasaray University Economic Research Center in its series GIAM Working Papers with number 10-2.

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Length: 31 pages
Date of creation: 2010
Date of revision: 2010
Handle: RePEc:ris:giamwp:2010_002

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Keywords: Environmental taxation; Unrecorded economy; Duopolistic competition;

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  1. Karanfil, Fatih & Ozkaya, Ata, 2007. "Estimation of real GDP and unrecorded economy in Turkey based on environmental data," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 4902-4908, October.
  2. Eilat, Yair & Zinnes, Clifford, 2002. "The Shadow Economy in Transition Countries: Friend or Foe? A Policy Perspective," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(7), pages 1233-1254, July.
  3. Fujiwara, Kenji, 2009. "Environmental policies in a differentiated oligopoly revisited," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 239-247, August.
  4. Friedrich Schneider & Dominik Enste, 1999. "Shadow Economies Around the World - Size, Causes, and Consequences," CESifo Working Paper Series 196, CESifo Group Munich.
  5. Klarita G�rxhani, 2004. "The Informal Sector in Developed and Less Developed Countries: A Literature Survey," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 120(3_4), pages 267-300, 09.
  6. Inés Macho-Stadler & David Pérez-Castrillo, 2004. "Optimal Enforcement Policy and Firm's Emissions and Compliance with Environmental Taxes," Working Papers 124, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
  7. Edgar L. Feige, 2003. "Defining And Estimating Underground And Informal Economies: The New Institional Economics Approach," Development and Comp Systems 0312003, EconWPA.
  8. Gary S. Becker, 1968. "Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 76, pages 169.
  9. Damania, R., 2000. "Financial structure and the effectiveness of pollution control in an oligopolistic industry," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 21-36, January.
  10. Jay P. Shimshack & Michael B. Ward, 2007. "Enforcement and Over-Compliance," Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University 0706, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
  11. Karanfil, Fatih, 2008. "Energy consumption and economic growth revisited: Does the size of unrecorded economy matter?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 3019-3025, August.
  12. Dominik H. Enste & Friedrich Schneider, 2000. "Shadow Economies: Size, Causes, and Consequences," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(1), pages 77-114, March.
  13. John K. Stranlund, 2006. "Risk Aversion and Compliance in Markets for Pollution Control," Working Papers 2006-2, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Resource Economics.
  14. R. Myerson., 2010. "Nash Equilibrium and the History of Economic Theory," VOPROSY ECONOMIKI, N.P. Redaktsiya zhurnala "Voprosy Economiki", vol. 6.
  15. Hamamoto, Mitsutsugu, 2006. "Environmental regulation and the productivity of Japanese manufacturing industries," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 299-312, November.
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