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Counterfactual Analysis in Macroeconometrics: An Empirical Investigation into the Effects of Quantitative Easing

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Author Info

  • M. Hashem Pesaran

    (University of Cambridge, UK; University of Southern California, USA)

  • Ron P. Smith

    (Birkbeck, University of London, UK)

Abstract

This paper is concerned with ex ante and ex post counterfactual analyses in the case of macroeconometric applications where a single unit is observed before and after a given policy intervention. It distinguishes between cases where the policy change affects the model’s parameters and where it does not. It is argued that for ex post policy evaluation it is important that outcomes are conditioned on ex post realized variables that are invariant to the policy change but nevertheless influence the outcomes. The effects of the control variables that are determined endogenously with the policy outcomes can be solved out for the policy evaluation exercise. An ex post policy ineffectiveness test statistic is proposed. The analysis is applied to the evaluation of the effects of the quantitative easing (QE) in the UK after March 2009. It is estimated that a 100 basis points reduction in the spread due to QE has an impact effect on output growth of about one percentage point, but the policy impact is very quickly reversed with no statistically significant effects remaining within 9–12 months of the policy intervention.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis in its series Working Paper Series with number 37_12.

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Date of creation: Jun 2012
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Handle: RePEc:rim:rimwps:37_12

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Keywords: Counterfactuals; policy evaluation; macroeconomics; quantitative easing (QE); UK economic policy;

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References

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  1. Jack Meaning & Feng Zhu, 2011. "The impact of recent central bank asset purchase programmes," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, December.
  2. Guido M. Imbens & Jeffrey M. Wooldridge, 2008. "Recent Developments in the Econometrics of Program Evaluation," NBER Working Papers 14251, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Giannone, Domenico & Lenza, Michele & Pill, Huw & Reichlin, Lucrezia, 2010. "Non-standard Monetary Policy Measures and Monetary Developments," CEPR Discussion Papers 8125, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. Athanasios Orphanides & John Williams, 2011. "Monetary Policy Mistakes and the Evolution of Inflation Expectations," NBER Working Papers 17080, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. James J. Heckman, 2008. "Econometric Causality," Working Papers 200826, Geary Institute, University College Dublin.
  6. Kapetanios, George & Mumtaz, Haroon & Stevens, Ibrahim & Theodoridis, Konstantinos, 2012. "Assessing the economy-wide effects of quantitative easing," Bank of England working papers 443, Bank of England.
  7. Stephane Dees & Filippo di Mauro & M. Hashem Pesaran & L. Vanessa Smith, 2006. "Exploring the International Linkages of the Euro Area: a Global VAR Analysis," Computing in Economics and Finance 2006 47, Society for Computational Economics.
  8. Claudio Borio & Piti Disyatat, 2009. "Unconventional monetary policies: an appraisal," BIS Working Papers 292, Bank for International Settlements.
  9. James J. Heckman, 2010. "Building Bridges between Structural and Program Evaluation Approaches to Evaluating Policy," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 48(2), pages 356-98, June.
  10. Alberto Abadie & Javier Gardeazabal, 2003. "The Economic Costs of Conflict: A Case Study of the Basque Country," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(1), pages 113-132, March.
  11. Joyce, Michael & Lasaosa, Ana & Stevens , Ibrahim & Tong, Matthew, 2010. "The financial market impact of quantitative easing," Bank of England working papers 393, Bank of England.
  12. Christiane Baumeister & Luca Benati, 2012. "Unconventional Monetary Policy and the Great Recession: Estimating the Macroeconomic Effects of a Spread Compression at the Zero Lower Bound," Working Papers 12-21, Bank of Canada.
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Blog mentions

As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
  1. What are the effects of Quantitative Easing
    by Peter in Macroeconomic Analysis on 2013-08-22 05:55:34
  2. Liam Plunkett & the tragedy of social science
    by chris dillow in Stumbling and Mumbling on 2014-06-25 12:40:57
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Cited by:
  1. Adrián Armas & Paul Castillo & Marco Vega, 2014. "Inflation Targeting and Quantitative Tightening: Effects of Reserve Requirements in Peru," IDB Publications 84714, Inter-American Development Bank.
  2. Milcheva, Stanimira, 2013. "Cross-country effects of regulatory capital arbitrage," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 5329-5345.
  3. Li MA & Zhongyuan DUAN & Huadan YU, 2013. "The Transmission Mechanism and Effectiveness of the Fed's Operation Twist," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(3), pages 164-181, October.
  4. Salvatore Morelli, 2014. "Banking Crises in the US: the Response of Top Income Shares in a Historical Perspective," CSEF Working Papers 359, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
  5. Pesaran, M. Hashem & Smith, Ron P., 2014. "Signs of impact effects in time series regression models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 122(2), pages 150-153.

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