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The flexibility penalty in a long-term perspective

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  • Addabbo, Tindara
  • Favaro, Donata

Abstract

In this paper we study the effect of flexibility on both wages and the likelihood of work stabilisation, by focusing on flexibility when entering the labour market and on periods of career interruption. Our main goal is to evaluate how having entered the labour market with fixed-term contracts or having experienced periods of interruption of work can affect the likelihood of being given a permanent contract and the level of wages received in subsequent jobs. Unlike other works in the existing literature, this study deals with female and male workers separately. The analysis is carried out using a dataset put together by the Istituto per lo Sviluppo della Formazione Professionale dei Lavoratori – ISFOL (Institute for the Development of the Professional Training of Workers) based on a sample of Italian workers. The dataset is representative of the Italian population and contains detailed information on work experience previous to workers’ present occupation with details on types of contracts and causes of career interruptions. In the first part of the paper, we examine density functions of monthly and hourly wages relative to contractual characteristics of first jobs and the number of job changes and work interruptions. In the second part of the paper, we estimate separate earnings functions for the sample of men and women with full-time permanent contracts. We correct for selection in full-time work by estimating a first-stage equation of the probability to have a permanent job and including the Mill’s ratio in the second-stage wage function. Estimates show that flexibility affects men and women differently, both in terms of levels of wages, and the likelihood of accessing permanent jobs. Some differences also emerge with regard to the causes of career interruptions.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 21064.

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Date of creation: Mar 2010
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:21064

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Keywords: Flexibility; Access to permanent jobs; wage penalty;

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References

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  1. van Ours, Jan C, 2002. "The Locking-in Effect of Subsidized Jobs," CEPR Discussion Papers 3489, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Alison L. Booth & Marco Francesconi & Jeff Frank, 2002. "Temporary Jobs: Stepping Stones Or Dead Ends?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(480), pages F189-F213, June.
  3. Gagliarducci, Stefano, 2005. "The dynamics of repeated temporary jobs," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 429-448, August.
  4. Heckman, James J, 1979. "Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-61, January.
  5. Addison, John T. & Surfield, Christopher J., 2009. "Atypical Work and Employment Continuity," IZA Discussion Papers 4065, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Ours, J.C. van, 2004. "The locking-in effect of subsidized jobs," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-140882, Tilburg University.
  7. J. Ignacio García-Pérez & Fernando Muñoz-Bullón, 2003. "Temporary Help Agencies And Occupational Mobility," Business Economics Working Papers wb034110, Universidad Carlos III, Departamento de Economía de la Empresa.
  8. Zijl, Marloes & van den Berg, Gerard J & Heyma, Arjan, 2004. "Stepping-stones for the unemployed: The effect of temporary jobs on the duration until regular work," Working Paper Series 2004:19, IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy.
  9. Andrea Ichino & Fabrizia Mealli & Tommaso Nannicini, 2005. "Temporary Work Agencies in Italy: A Springboard Toward Permanent Employment?," Giornale degli Economisti, GDE (Giornale degli Economisti e Annali di Economia), Bocconi University, vol. 64(1), pages 1-27, September.
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