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The Impact of Immigration on the Educational Attainment of Natives

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  • Jennifer Hunt

Abstract

Using a state panel based on census data from 1940-2010, I examine the impact of immigration on the high school completion of natives in the United States. Immigrant children could compete for schooling resources with native children, lowering the return to native education and discouraging native high school completion. Conversely, native children might be encouraged to complete high school in order to avoid competing with immigrant high-school dropouts in the labor market. I find evidence that both channels are operative and that the net effect is positive, particularly for native-born blacks, though not for native-born Hispanics. An increase of one percentage point in the share of immigrants in the population aged 11-64 increases the probability that natives aged 11-17 eventually complete 12 years of schooling by 0.3 percentage points, and increases the probability for native-born blacks by 0.4 percentage points. I account for the endogeneity of immigrant flows by using instruments based on 1940 settlement patterns.

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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 18047.

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Date of creation: May 2012
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Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:18047

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  1. Eric D. Gould & Victor Lavy & M. Daniele Paserman, 2009. "Does Immigration Affect the Long-Term Educational Outcomes of Natives? Quasi-Experimental Evidence," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 119(540), pages 1243-1269, October.
  2. Gordon H. Hanson & Craig McIntosh, 2007. "The Great Mexican Emigration," NBER Working Papers 13675, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Jennifer Hunt & Marjolaine Gauthier-Loiselle, 2008. "How Much Does Immigration Boost Innovation?," Departmental Working Papers 2008-07, McGill University, Department of Economics.
  4. Jensen, Peter & Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz, 2011. "The effect of immigrant concentration in schools on native and immigrant children's reading and math skills," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 1503-1515.
  5. Giovanni Peri & Chad Sparber, 2008. "Task Specialisation, Immigration and Wages," Development Working Papers 252, Centro Studi Luca d\'Agliano, University of Milano.
  6. David Card, 2009. "Immigration and Inequality," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 0907, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
  7. Heckman, James J. & LaFontaine, Paul A., 2007. "The American High School Graduation Rate: Trends and Levels," IZA Discussion Papers 3216, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  8. Victor Lavy & Olmo Silva & Felix Weinhardt, 2012. "The Good, the Bad, and the Average: Evidence on Ability Peer Effects in Schools," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 30(2), pages 367 - 414.
  9. Betts, Julian R. & Fairlie, Robert W., 2003. "Does immigration induce 'native flight' from public schools into private schools?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(5-6), pages 987-1012, May.
  10. Asako Ohinata & Jan C van Ours, 2012. "How immigrant children affect the academic achievement of native Dutch children," Norface Discussion Paper Series 2012012, Norface Research Programme on Migration, Department of Economics, University College London.
  11. Eberhard, Juan, 2012. "Immigration, Human Capital and the Welfare of Natives," MPRA Paper 37844, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  12. Brunello, Giorgio & Rocco, Lorenzo, 2011. "The Effect of Immigration on the School Performance of Natives: Cross Country Evidence Using PISA Test Scores," IZA Discussion Papers 5479, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  13. Cragg, John G. & Donald, Stephen G., 1993. "Testing Identifiability and Specification in Instrumental Variable Models," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 9(02), pages 222-240, April.
  14. Julian R. Betts & Magnus Lofstrom, 2000. "The Educational Attainment of Immigrants: Trends and Implications," NBER Chapters, in: Issues in the Economics of Immigration, pages 51-116 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. David Card, 1996. "Immigrant Inflows, Native Outflows, and the Local Labor Market Impacts of Higher Immigration," Working Papers 747, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  16. George J. Borjas, 2007. "Mexican Immigration to the United States," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number borj06-1, October.
  17. Chin, Aimee & Daysal, N. Meltem & Imberman, Scott A., 2012. "Impact of Bilingual Education Programs on Limited English Proficient Students and Their Peers: Regression Discontinuity Evidence from Texas," IZA Discussion Papers 6694, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  18. Wozniak, Abigail & Murray, Thomas J., 2012. "Timing is everything: Short-run population impacts of immigration in US cities," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(1), pages 60-78.
  19. Joan Llull, 2013. "Immigration, Wages, and Education: A Labor Market Equilibrium Structural Model," Working Papers 711, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
  20. Gibbons, Steve & Telhaj, Shqiponja, 2012. "Peer Effects: Evidence from Secondary School Transition in England," IZA Discussion Papers 6455, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  21. Charlotte Geay & Sandra McNally & Shqiponja Telhaj, 2012. "Non-Native Speakers Of English In The Classroom: What Are The Effects On Pupil Performance?," CEE Discussion Papers 0137, Centre for the Economics of Education, LSE.
  22. George J. Borjas, 2007. "Introduction to "Mexican Immigration to the United States"," NBER Chapters, in: Mexican Immigration to the United States, pages 1-12 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  23. Christopher L. Smith, 2012. "The Impact of Low-Skilled Immigration on the Youth Labor Market," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 30(1), pages 55 - 89.
  24. Elizabeth U. Cascio & Ethan G. Lewis, 2012. "Cracks in the Melting Pot: Immigration, School Choice, and Segregation," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 4(3), pages 91-117, August.
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Cited by:
  1. Dai, Tiantian & Liu, Xiangbo & Xie, Biancen, 2013. "The impact of immigrants on host country crime," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 119(2), pages 157-161.
  2. Andrei Zlate & Federico Mandelman, 2013. "Offshoring, Low-skilled Immigration and Labor Market Polarization," 2013 Meeting Papers 1073, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  3. Asako Ohinata & Jan C. van Ours, 2013. "Spillover effects of studying with immigrant students; a quantile regression approach," Norface Discussion Paper Series 2013024, Norface Research Programme on Migration, Department of Economics, University College London.
  4. Brunello, Giorgio & Rocco, Lorenzo, 2013. "The effect of immigration on the school performance of natives: Cross country evidence using PISA test scores," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 234-246.
  5. Chen, Hung-Ju & Fang, I-Hsiang, 2013. "Migration, social security, and economic growth," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 386-399.
  6. Francesc Ortega & Giovanni Peri, 2012. "The Effect of Trade and Migration on Income," Working Papers 1213, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
  7. Sweetman, A. & Ours, J.C. van, 2014. "Immigration: What About the Children and Grandchildren?," Discussion Paper 2014-009, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.

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