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Is there long-run convergence of regional house prices in the UK?

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Author Info

  • Mark J. Holmes

    ()
    (University of Waikato)

  • Arthur Grimes

    ()
    (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research)

Abstract

This paper investigates the long-run convergence of regional house prices in the UK. Using a variety of econometric methods, existing studies have failed to reach a consensus on whether or not regional house prices are cointegrated and exhibit long-run constancy relative to each other. We propose the application of a new test that combines principal components analysis with unit root testing to throw new light on the regional convergence debate. Using mix-adjusted quarterly house price data for 1973-2005, we find that existing unit root and cointegration methodologies indicate the presence of multiple stochastic trends with, at best, very weak evidence of long-run convergence. However, testing for the stationarity of the largest principal component based on regional house price differentials suggests that all UK regional house prices are driven by a single common stochastic trend and can be regarded as exhibiting strong convergence in the long-run. Further analysis suggests there is a high degree of persistence in regional house price differentials.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Motu Economic and Public Policy Research in its series Working Papers with number 05_11.

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Length: 22 pages
Date of creation: Aug 2005
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:mtu:wpaper:05_11

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Related research

Keywords: House prices; convergence; unit roots; cointegration; principal components;

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References

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  1. Bai, Jushan, 2004. "Estimating cross-section common stochastic trends in nonstationary panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 122(1), pages 137-183, September.
  2. Jushan Bai & Serena Ng, 2004. "A PANIC Attack on Unit Roots and Cointegration," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 72(4), pages 1127-1177, 07.
  3. James G. MacKinnon & Alfred A. Haug & Leo Michelis, 1996. "Numerical Distribution Functions of Likelihood Ratio Tests for Cointegration," Working Papers 1996_07, York University, Department of Economics.
  4. McDonald, Ronald & Taylor, Mark P, 1993. "Regional House Prices in Britain: Long-Run Relationships and Short-Run Dynamics," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 40(1), pages 43-55, February.
  5. Snell, Andy, 1998. "Testing for r versus r-1 cointegrating vectors," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 151-191, November.
  6. Graham Elliott & Thomas J. Rothenberg & James H. Stock, 1992. "Efficient Tests for an Autoregressive Unit Root," NBER Technical Working Papers 0130, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Serena Ng & Pierre Perron, 2001. "LAG Length Selection and the Construction of Unit Root Tests with Good Size and Power," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(6), pages 1519-1554, November.
  8. Peter C.B.Phillips & Donggyu Sul, 2002. "Dynamic Panel Estimation and Homogeneity Testing Under Cross Section Dependence," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1362, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  9. Ashworth, John & Parker, Simon C, 1997. "Modelling Regional House Prices in the UK," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 44(3), pages 225-46, August.
  10. Carlo A. Favero & Massimiliano Marcellino, . "Large Datasets, Small Models and Monetary Policy in Europe," Working Papers 208, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
  11. MOON, Hyungsik Roger & PERRON, Benoit., 2002. "Testing for a Unit Root in Panels with Dynamic Factors," Cahiers de recherche 2002-18, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
  12. Stock, James H. & Watson, Mark W., 1999. "Forecasting inflation," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 293-335, October.
  13. Cook, Steven, 2005. "Regional house price behaviour in the UK: application of a joint testing procedure," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 345(3), pages 611-621.
  14. Snell, Andy, 1996. "A test of purchasing power parity based on the largest principal component of real exchange rates of the main OECD economies," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 225-231, May.
  15. Artis, Michael J & Banerjee, Anindya & Marcellino, Massimiliano, 2002. "Factor Forecasts for the UK," CEPR Discussion Papers 3119, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  16. Steven Cook, 2005. "Detecting long-run relationships in regional house prices in the UK," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(1), pages 107-118.
  17. Mark J. Holmes & Kul B. Luintel, 1997. "The Regional Demand for Building Society Mortgage Finance," Ekonomia, Cyprus Economic Society and University of Cyprus, vol. 1(1), pages 65-81, Summer.
  18. Hall, Stephen & Lazarova, Stepana & Urga, Giovanni, 1999. " A Principal Components Analysis of Common Stochastic Trends in Heterogeneous Panel Data: Some Monte Carlo Evidence," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 749-67, Special I.
  19. Hyungsik Roger MOON & Benoit PERRON, 2002. "Testing For A Unit Root In Panels With Dynamic Factors," Cahiers de recherche 18-2002, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. S Holly & M Hashem Pesaran & T Yamagata, . "Spatial and Temporal Diffusion of House Prices in the UK," Discussion Papers 09/32, Department of Economics, University of York.
  2. Arthur Grimes & Mark Holmes, 2010. "New Zealand Housing Markets: Just a Bit-Player in the A-League?," Working Papers 10_07, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
  3. Luis A. Gil-Alana & Goodness C. Aye & Rangan Gupta, 2012. "Testing for Persistence with Breaks and Outliers in South African House Prices," Faculty Working Papers 20/12, School of Economics and Business Administration, University of Navarra.
  4. repec:asi:ajoerj:2013:p:785-807 is not listed on IDEAS
  5. Holmes, Mark J. & Otero, Jesús & Panagiotidis, Theodore, 2011. "Investigating regional house price convergence in the United States: Evidence from a pair-wise approach," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(6), pages 2369-2376.
  6. Arthur Grimes & David C. Maré & Melanie Morten, 2007. "Adjustment in Local Labour and Housing Markets," Working Papers 07_10, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
  7. Giorgio Canarella & Stephen M. Miller & Stephen K. Pollard, 2010. "Unit Roots and Structural Change: An Application to US House-Price Indices," Working Papers 1004, University of Nevada, Las Vegas , Department of Economics.
  8. Zohrabyan, Tatevik & Leatham, David J. & Bessler, David A., 2008. "Cointegration Analysis of Regional House Prices in U.S," Proceedings: 2007 Agricultural and Rural Finance Markets in Transition, October 4-5, 2007, St. Louis, Missouri 48138, Regional Research Committee NC-1014: Agricultural and Rural Finance Markets in Transition.
  9. Chen, Pei-Fen & Chien, Mei-Se & Lee, Chien-Chiang, 2011. "Dynamic modeling of regional house price diffusion in Taiwan," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 315-332.
  10. Mei-Se Chien, 2010. "Structural Breaks and the Convergence of Regional House Prices," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 40(1), pages 77-88, January.
  11. Goodness C. Aye & Samrat Goswami & Rangan Gupta, 2012. "Metropolitan House Prices In India: Do They Converge?," Working Papers 201220, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
  12. Lyócsa, Štefan & Výrost, Tomáš & Baumöhl, Eduard, 2011. "Unit-root and stationarity testing with empirical application on industrial production of CEE-4 countries," MPRA Paper 29648, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  13. Holly, Sean & Hashem Pesaran, M. & Yamagata, Takashi, 2011. "The spatial and temporal diffusion of house prices in the UK," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 2-23, January.
  14. Rangan Gupta & Stephen Miller, 2012. "The Time-Series Properties of House Prices: A Case Study of the Southern California Market," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 44(3), pages 339-361, April.

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