Women-Led Firms and the Gender Gap in Top Executive Jobs
AbstractUsing data on Executive Compensation from Standard and Poor's ExecuComp, this paper explores the gender gap in top executive jobs and the effect of women CEOs, Chairs, and Directors on the pay of other women executives. The results show a narrowing of the uncorrected gender pay gap from the mid-1990s. Women top executives earn between 8% to 25% less than male executives after controlling for differences in company size, occupational title, and industry. The magnitude of the gender pay gap is statistically related to the gender of the Chief Executive and Corporate Board Chair. Women CEO and Board Chairs bring more top women and at higher pay than is found in non-women-led firms. Specifically, female executives in women-led firms earn between 10-20% more than comparable executive women in male-led firms and are between 3-18% more likely to be among the highest five paid executives in these firms as well. The paper thereby provides strong empirical evidence that women leaders are associated with positive outcomes for women executives in substantive and important ways.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 1689.
Length: 42 pages
Date of creation: Jul 2005
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- J11 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Demographic Trends, Macroeconomic Effects, and Forecasts
- J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
- J33 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Compensation Packages; Payment Methods
- J70 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - General
- J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing
- J78 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Public Policy (including comparable worth)
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Susan Athey, 1998.
"Mentoring and Diversity,"
98-2, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Marianne Bertrand & Kevin F. Hallock, 2000.
"The Gender Gap in Top Corporate Jobs,"
NBER Working Papers
7931, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2000.
"Gender Differences in Pay,"
NBER Working Papers
7732, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Lucian Bebchuk, 2005.
"The Growth of Executive Pay,"
Oxford Review of Economic Policy,
Oxford University Press, vol. 21(2), pages 283-303, Summer.
- Claudia Goldin, 2002. "A Pollution Theory of Discrimination: Male and Female Differences in Occupations and Earnings," NBER Working Papers 8985, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Fuchs, Victor R, 1989. "Women's Quest for Economic Equality," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 3(1), pages 25-41, Winter.
- George-Levi Gayle & Limor Golan & Robert Miller, .
"Are There Glass Ceilings for Female Executives?,"
GSIA Working Papers
2009-E8, Carnegie Mellon University, Tepper School of Business.
- Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov & Rudholm, Niklas, 2012. "Does Gender Diversity in the Boardroom Improve Firm Performance?," HUI Working Papers 60, HUI Research.
- Booth, Alison L., 2009.
"Gender and Competition,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
7437, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Gravelle, Hugh & Hole, Arne Risa & Santos, Rita, 2011.
"Measuring and testing for gender discrimination in physician pay: English family doctors,"
Journal of Health Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 660-674, July.
- Hugh Gravelle & Arne Risa Hole & Rita Santos, 2011. "Measuring and testing for gender discrimination in physician pay: English family doctors," Discussion Papers 11/05, Department of Economics, University of York.
- Stepan Jurajda & Teodora Paligorova, 2006.
"Female Managers and Their Wages in Central Europe,"
CERGE-EI Working Papers
wp296, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economic Institute, Prague.
- Jurajda, Stepan & Paligorova, Teodora, 2006. "Female Managers and their Wages in Central Europe," CEPR Discussion Papers 5871, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Jurajda, Štepán & Paligorova, Teodora, 2006. "Female Managers and their Wages in Central Europe," IZA Discussion Papers 2303, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Elkinawy, Susan & Stater, Mark, 2011. "Gender differences in executive compensation: Variation with board gender composition and time," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 23-45, January.
- Hu, Ting & Yun, Myeong-Su, 2008. "Is the Glass Ceiling Cracking? A Simple Test," IZA Discussion Papers 3518, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Cardoso, Ana Rute & Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf, 2007.
"Mentoring and Segregation: Female-Led Firms and Gender Wage Policies,"
IZA Discussion Papers
3210, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Cardoso, Ana Rute & Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf, 2007. "Mentoring and Segregation: Female-Led Firms and Gender Wage Policies," CEPR Discussion Papers 6618, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Ana Rute Cardoso & Rudolf Winter-Ebmer, 2007. "Mentoring and Segregation: Female-Led Firms and Gender Wage Policies," Economics working papers 2007-20, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
- Jurajda, Stepan & Münich, Daniel, 2008. "Gender Gap in Performance under Competitive Pressure," CEPR Discussion Papers 7059, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Nina Smith & Valdemar Smith & Mette Verner, 2005.
"Do Women in Top Management Affect Firm Performance? A Panel Study of 2500 Danish Firms,"
CIE Discussion Papers
2005-03, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics. Centre for Industrial Economics.
- Smith, Nina & Smith, Valdemar & Verner, Mette, 2005. "Do Women in Top Management Affect Firm Performance? A Panel Study of 2500 Danish Firms," IZA Discussion Papers 1708, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Maria De Paola & Vincenzo Scoppa, 2011. "Gender Discrimination and Evaluators’ Gender: Evidence from the Italian Academy," Working Papers 201106, Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche, Statistiche e Finanziarie (Ex Dipartimento di Economia e Statistica).
- Jurajda, Stepán & Paligorova, Teodora, 2009. "Czech female managers and their wages," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 342-351, June.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.