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Pricing executive stock options under employment shocks

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  • Ángel León Valle

    ()
    (Universidad de Alicante)

  • Antonio Vaello

    (Universitat de les Illes Balears)

  • Julio Carmona

    (Universidad de Alicante)

Abstract

We obtain explicit expressions for the subjective, objective and market value of perpetual executive stock options (ESOs) under exogenous employment shocks driven by an independent Poisson process. Within this setup,we obtain the executive's optimal exercise policy which allows us to analyze the determinants of both, the subjective valuation by executives and the objective valuation by firms. The perpetual ESO is compared with the more realistic finite maturity ESO finding that the approximation is reasonably good. We also use the objective valuation's results for accounting purposes. Further,we analyze the objective valuation distribution when there is uncertainty about the employment shock parameter. Finally, the role of ESOs in the design of executive's incentives is also discussed.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie) in its series Working Papers. Serie AD with number 2009-22.

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Length: 44 pages
Date of creation: Sep 2009
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Publication status: Published by Ivie
Handle: RePEc:ivi:wpasad:2009-22

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Keywords: ESO; Risk Aversion; Undiversification; Incentives; FAS 123R.;

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References

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  1. Huddart, Steven & Lang, Mark, 1996. "Employee stock option exercises an empirical analysis," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 5-43, February.
  2. Vicky Henderson, 2005. "The impact of the market portfolio on the valuation, incentives and optimality of executive stock options," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(1), pages 35-47.
  3. Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-54, May-June.
  4. Jakša Cvitanić & Zvi Wiener & Fernando Zapatero, 2008. "Analytic Pricing of Employee Stock Options," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 21(2), pages 683-724, April.
  5. Matthias Kahl & Jun Liu & Francis A. Longstaff, 2002. "Paper millionaires: How valuable is stock to a stockholder who is restricted from selling it?," NBER Working Papers 8969, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. John H. Cochrane & Jesus Saa-Requejo, 1996. "Beyond Arbitrage: "Good-Deal" Asset Price Bounds in Incomplete Markets," NBER Working Papers 5489, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Huddart, Steven, 1994. "Employee stock options," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 207-231, September.
  8. Brian J. Hall & Kevin J. Murphy, 2000. "Stock Options for Undiversified Executives," NBER Working Papers 8052, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Sircar, Ronnie & Xiong, Wei, 2007. "A general framework for evaluating executive stock options," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 2317-2349, July.
  10. Lars Stentoft, 2004. "Convergence of the Least Squares Monte Carlo Approach to American Option Valuation," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 50(9), pages 1193-1203, September.
  11. Tian, Yisong S., 2004. "Too much of a good incentive? The case of executive stock options," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(6), pages 1225-1245, June.
  12. Longstaff, Francis A & Schwartz, Eduardo S, 2001. "Valuing American Options by Simulation: A Simple Least-Squares Approach," University of California at Los Angeles, Anderson Graduate School of Management qt43n1k4jb, Anderson Graduate School of Management, UCLA.
  13. Bettis, J. Carr & Bizjak, John M. & Lemmon, Michael L., 2005. "Exercise behavior, valuation, and the incentive effects of employee stock options," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 445-470, May.
  14. Tim Leung & Ronnie Sircar, 2009. "Accounting For Risk Aversion, Vesting, Job Termination Risk And Multiple Exercises In Valuation Of Employee Stock Options," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(1), pages 99-128.
  15. Chang, Charles & Fuh, Cheng-Der & Hsu, Ya-Hui, 2008. "ESO compensation: The roles of default risk, employee sentiment, and insider information," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(5), pages 630-641, December.
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Cited by:
  1. Eikseth, Hans Marius & Lindset, Snorre, 2011. "Backdating executive stock options--An ex ante valuation," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 1731-1743, October.

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