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Trust-Based Trade

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  • Luis Araujo

    (Michigan State University and Fucape)

  • Emanuel Ornelas

    (University of Georgia and IBMEC Business School - Rio de Janeiro)

Abstract

There is substantially more trade within national borders than across borders. An important explanation for this fact is the weak enforcement of international contracts. We develop a model in which agents build reputations to overcome this institutional failure. The model describes the interplay between institutional quality, reputations and the dynamics of international trade. It also rationalizes several empirical regularities. We find that history matters for trade volumes, but that its effects vary with the institutional setting of the country. The same is true for the efficacy of trade liberalization programs. Moreover, while stricter enforcement of contracts enhances trade in the short run, it makes it harder for individual traders to develop good reputations. We show that this indirect negative effect may produce an "institutional trap": for sufficiently low initial levels of contract enforcement, a small tightening in enforcement reduces future trade flows. We find also that search frictions aggravate the problems created by weak enforceability of contracts, even if they impose no direct cost on agents, but that trade liberalization can mitigate these negative effects.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Economics Research Group, IBMEC Business School - Rio de Janeiro in its series IBMEC RJ Economics Discussion Papers with number 2005-08.

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Date of creation: 30 Nov 2005
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Handle: RePEc:ibr:dpaper:2005-08

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Postal: Av. Pres. Wilson 118, 11 andar, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, 20030-020
Web page: http://professores.ibmecrj.br/erg/
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Keywords: International trade; Export dynamics; Contract enforcement; Reputation;

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References

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  1. Henry Overman & Patricia Rice & Anthony J. Venables, 2007. "Economic Linkages Across Space," CEP Discussion Papers dp0805, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  2. Greif, Avner, 1993. "Contract Enforceability and Economic Institutions in Early Trade: the Maghribi Traders' Coalition," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(3), pages 525-48, June.
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  15. McLaren, John, 1999. "Supplier relations and the market context: A theory of handshakes," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 121-138, June.
  16. James E. Rauch & Vitor Trindade, 2003. "Information, International Substitutability, and Globalization," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(3), pages 775-791, June.
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  18. Dani Rodrik, 2000. "How Far Will International Economic Integration Go?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(1), pages 177-186, Winter.
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  20. Alejandro Izquierdo & Jacques Morriset & Marcelo Olarreaga, 2003. "Information Diffusion in International Markets," Research Department Publications 4335, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  21. James E. Rauch, 2001. "Business and Social Networks in International Trade," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 39(4), pages 1177-1203, December.
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  24. Woodruff, Christopher, 1998. "Contract enforcement and trade liberalization in Mexico's footwear industry," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 979-991, June.
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