Demographic patterns and trends in patenting: Gender, age, and education of inventors
AbstractThis paper uses register-linked patent records covering an extended period 1985-2007 to analyze detailed demographic profiles of inventors. The analysis covers about 80 percent of all inventors with Swedish addresses listed on European Patent Office records. Examining temporal trends of gender, age, and education shows that the body of inventors is becoming more balanced in gender, younger, and more educated. However, the rate at which female inventors are entering into patenting has slowed down since the early 2000’s compared to the mid-1990s. Moreover, comparing the inventor sample with the entire population of Sweden reveals that 1) the closing of the gender gap in inventing is not taking place at the same rate as among Ph.D. holders and that 2) the dependence of inventing on the highly educated (especially, Ph.D. holders) is being intensified over time, but the number of highly educated is growing faster among the general population than among inventors. Finally, the analysis shows that there is significant heterogeneity in the composition and tendency of gender, age, and education of inventors across technology fields.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy in its series Papers in Innovation Studies with number 2012/5.
Length: 25 pages
Date of creation: 03 Apr 2012
Date of revision: 03 Apr 2012
inventor; patent; gender; age; education;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- I23 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Higher Education; Research Institutions
- J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
- O31 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Technological Change; Research and Development; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
- O34 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Technological Change; Research and Development; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2012-05-29 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEM-2012-05-29 (Demographic Economics)
- NEP-EUR-2012-05-29 (Microeconomic European Issues)
- NEP-HME-2012-05-29 (Heterodox Microeconomics)
- NEP-INO-2012-05-29 (Innovation)
- NEP-IPR-2012-05-29 (Intellectual Property Rights)
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