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Les réseaux intelligents : régulation, investissement et gestion de la demande électrique

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  • Cédric Clastres

    ()
    (LEPII - Laboratoire d'Économie de la Production et de l'Intégration Internationale - CNRS : UMR5252 - Université Pierre Mendès-France - Grenoble II)

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    Abstract

    Le développement des réseaux intelligents (smart grids en anglais, ou encore SG) dans les systèmes électriques fait aujourd'hui l'objet de nombreuses recherches pluridisciplinaires. Cette nouvelle technologie est vue comme un outil supplémentaire que les Etats pourraient mobiliser pour atteindre les objectifs de concurrence, de sécurité des systèmes électriques et de lutte contre le changement climatique, objectifs fixés nationalement ou au niveau européen. L'essor de ces nouveaux réseaux fait émerger conjointement de nombreuses questions économiques. En effet, compte tenu des gains potentiels liés aux smart grids pour les acteurs de la chaîne électrique ainsi que des flux informationnels qu'ils vont générer, les systèmes de régulation devront être adaptés à la fois pour réguler ces nouveaux réseaux mais aussi pour inciter aux investissements. Les nouvelles offres et tarifications à l'usager final qu'ils permettront devront aller dans le sens d'une concurrence accrue et donc d'une recherche des efficiences allocative et productive, minimisant les risques de pouvoir de marché. Les producteurs et consommateurs, grâce à ces flux informationnels sur les productions ou consommations en temps réel pourront s'adapter aux conditions du marché. Enfin, les énergies renouvelables et les nouvelles technologies comme le stockage ou les véhicules électriques trouveront dans le développement de ces réseaux intelligents un soutien à leur insertion et utilisation optimale. Ces questions donnent toutes des pistes de réflexions et de recherche pour lesquelles la théorie économique peut être mobilisée ; certaines font d'ailleurs déjà l'objet de premiers résultats.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by HAL in its series Post-Print with number halshs-00539818.

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    Date of creation: Nov 2010
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    Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-00539818

    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: http://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00539818/en/
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    Related research

    Keywords: Smart grid ; Régulation ; Investissements ; Demand Side Management ; Energies renouvelables ; Véhicule électrique.;

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