The Impact of a Feeder Road Project on Cash Crop Production in Zambia’s Eastern Province between 1997 and 2002
AbstractThis paper investigates the dynamic impacts of rural road improvements on farm productivity and crop choices in Zambia’s Eastern Province. There are several channels through which the feeder road improvements impact on farmers. Our aim is to estimate whether the differential outcomes in the five treatment districts and three control districts generated by the expansion of market agricultural activities among small to medium scale farmers could be explained by rural road improvements that took place after the new Chiluba MMD government in 1995 had completed an IMF rights accumulation programme bringing the principal marketing agent system to an end. Our district-level empirical analysis is an extension to the Brambilla and Porto(2005, 2007) cross-provincial level approach which proposes a dynamic approach accounting for entry and exit into the agricultural cotton sector to avoid biases in the estimates of aggregate productivity, when measuring productivity in agriculture applied to a repeated cross-sections of farm-level data from the Zambian post-harvest survey (PHS). Despite the limitations of the PHS data covering the period from 1996/1997 to 2001/2002 when the Eastern Province Feeder Road Project (EPFRP) was being implemented. The identification strategy relies on differences-in-differences of outcomes (i.e., cotton productivity) approach across two phases (pre-treatment and post-treatment). We use maize productivity to difference out unobserved household and aggregate agricultural year effects. Through our descriptive analysis we do find that changes in land allocation and in yields to Eastern Province’s most important cash crop – cotton did occur at the district level. However, it is difficult to conclude that these changes are linked directly to the improved accessibility obtained from the implementation of the EPFRP based on our differences-in-differences estimator or our Tobit model.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies in its series IHEID Working Papers with number 04-2012.
Length: 38 pages
Date of creation: 28 Feb 2012
Date of revision: 28 Feb 2012
Impact evaluation; Cash crop choice; Cotton productivity; Africa; Zambia (Eastern Province).;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- C2 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables
- C83 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs - - - Survey Methods; Sampling Methods
- D2 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations
- O12 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
- O13 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products
- Q12 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets
- R3 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Production Analysis, and Firm Location
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-AFR-2012-03-08 (Africa)
- NEP-AGR-2012-03-08 (Agricultural Economics)
- NEP-ALL-2012-03-08 (All new papers)
- NEP-EFF-2012-03-08 (Efficiency & Productivity)
- NEP-PPM-2012-03-08 (Project, Program & Portfolio Management)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Javier Escobal & Carmen Ponce, 2003. "The benefits of rural roads. Enhancing income opportunities for the rural poor," Documentos de InvestigaciÃ³n dt40b, Grupo de Análisis para el Desarrollo (GRADE).
- Jacoby, Hanan C, 2000.
"Access to Markets and the Benefits of Rural Roads,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(465), pages 713-37, July.
- Fan, Shenggen & Chan-Kang, Connie, 2004.
"Road development, economic growth, and poverty reduction in China,"
DSGD discussion papers
12, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Fan, Shenggen & Chan-Kang, Connie, 2005. "Road development, economic growth, and poverty reduction in China:," Research reports 138, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Jacoby, Hanan G. & Minten, Bart, 2009.
"On measuring the benefits of lower transport costs,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 89(1), pages 28-38, May.
- Jacoby, Hanan G. & Minten, Bart, 2008. "On measuring the benefits of lower transport costs," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4484, The World Bank.
- Jonathan Kydd & Andrew Dorward, 2006.
"Implications of Market and Coordination Failures for Rural Development in Least Developed Countries,"
- Jonathan Kydd & Andrew Dorward, 2004. "Implications of market and coordination failures for rural development in least developed countries," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(7), pages 951-970.
- Irene Brambilla & Guido G. Porto, 2011.
"Market structure, outgrower contracts, and farm output. Evidence from cotton reforms in Zambia,"
Oxford Economic Papers,
Oxford University Press, vol. 63(4), pages 740-766, December.
- Irene Brambilla & Guido Porto, 2005. "Market Structure, Outgrower contracs and Farm Output. Evidence from Cotton Reforms in Zambia," NBER Working Papers 11804, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Mu, Ren & van de Walle, Dominique, 2007. "Rural roads and poor area development in Vietnam," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4340, The World Bank.
- Dercon, Stefan & Hoddinott, John, 2005. "Livelihoods, growth, and links to market towns in 15 Ethiopian villages," FCND discussion papers 194, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Uwe Deichmann & Marianne Fay & Jun Koo & Somik V. Lall, 2004.
"Economic structure, productivity, and infrastructure quality in Southern Mexico,"
The Annals of Regional Science,
Springer, vol. 38(3), pages 361-385, 09.
- Deichmann, Uwe & Fay, Marianne & Jun Koo & Lall, Somik V., 2002. "Economic structure, productivity, and infrastructure quality in southern Mexico," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2900, The World Bank.
- Brambilla, Irene & Porto, Guido G., 2006.
"Farm productivity and marketstructure : evidence from cotton reforms in Zambia,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
3904, The World Bank.
- Irene Brambilla & Guido G. Porto, 2005. "Farm Productivity and Market Structure. Evidence From Cotton Reforms in Zambia," Working Papers 919, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
- Brambilla, Irene & Porto, Guido, 2005. "Farm Productivity and Market Structure: Evidence from Cotton Reforms in Zambia," Working Papers 5, Yale University, Department of Economics.
- Thomas W. Hertel & L. Alan Winters, 2006. "Poverty and the WTO : Impacts of the Doha Development Agenda," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 7411.
- Megill, David J., 2000. "Review of Sample Design for Zambia Post-harvest Survey (1997/98) and Recommendations for Improving the Sampling Strategy and Estimation Procedures," Food Security Collaborative Working Papers 54457, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
- Neil McCulloch & Bob Baulch & Milasoa Cherel-Robson, 2000.
"Poverty, Inequality and Growth in Zambia during the 1990s,"
- McCulloch, Neil & Baulch, Bob & Cherel-Robson, Milasoa, 2001. "Poverty, Inequality and Growth in Zambia during the 1990s," Working Papers UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
- Dorward, Andrew & Kydd, Jonathan & Morrison, Jamie & Urey, Ian, 2002.
"A Policy Agenda For Pro Poor Agricultural Growth,"
ADU Working Papers
10923, Imperial College at Wye, Department of Agricultural Sciences.
- Minten, Bart & Kyle, Steven, 1999. "The effect of distance and road quality on food collection, marketing margins, and traders' wages: evidence from the former Zaire," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 467-495, December.
- Jorge F. Balat & Guido Porto, 2005.
"Globalization and Complementary Policies: Poverty Impacts in Rural Zambia,"
NBER Working Papers
11175, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jorge F. Balat & Guido G. Porto, 2007. "Globalization and Complementary Policies: Poverty Impacts on Rural Zambia," NBER Chapters, in: Globalization and Poverty, pages 373-416 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Tschirley, David L. & Poulton, Colin & Boughton, Duncan, 2006.
"The Many Paths of Cotton Sector Reform in Eastern and Southern Africa: Lessons from a Decade of Experience,"
Food Security International Development Working Papers
54565, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
- Tschirley, David L. & Poulton, Colin & Boughton, Duncan, 2006. "The Many Paths of Cotton Sector Reform in Eastern and Southern Africa: Lessons from a Decade of Experience," Food Security International Development Policy Syntheses 54506, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
- Tschirley, David L. & Poulton, Colin & Boughton, Duncan, 2006. "The Many Paths of Cotton Sector Reform in Eastern and Southern Africa: Lessons From a Decade of Experience," Food Security Collaborative Working Papers 54477, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
- Balat, Jorge F. & Porto, Guido G., 2005. "The WTO Doha Round, cotton sector dynamics, and poverty trends in Zambia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3697, The World Bank.
- Ravallion, Martin & Jalan, Jyotsna, 1996. "Growth divergence due to spatial externalities," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 227-232, November.
- Markus Goldstein & Christopher Udry, 2008.
"The Profits of Power: Land Rights and Agricultural Investment in Ghana,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 116(6), pages 981-1022, December.
- Markus Goldstein & Christopher Udry, 2005. "The Profits of Power: Land Rights and Agricultural Investment in Ghana," Working Papers 929, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
- Bellemare, Marc F., 2010. "The Productivity Impacts of de Jure and de Facto Land Rights," MPRA Paper 23639, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Heckman, James J & Ichimura, Hidehiko & Todd, Petra E, 1997. "Matching as an Econometric Evaluation Estimator: Evidence from Evaluating a Job Training Programme," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(4), pages 605-54, October.
- Jonathan Kydd & Andrew Dorward & Jamie Morrison & Georg Cadisch, 2004.
"Agricultural development and pro-poor economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa: potential and policy,"
Oxford Development Studies,
Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 32(1), pages 37-57.
- Kydd, Jonathan & Dorward, Andrew & Morrison, Jamie & Cadisch, Georg, 2002. "Agricultural Development And Pro Poor Economic Growth In Sub Saharan Africa: Potential And Policy," ADU Working Papers 10920, Imperial College at Wye, Department of Agricultural Sciences.
- Alberto Abadie & David Drukker & Jane Leber Herr & Guido W. Imbens, 2004. "Implementing matching estimators for average treatment effects in Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 4(3), pages 290-311, September.
- Dominique van de Walle, 2009. "Impact evaluation of rural road projects," The Journal of Development Effectiveness, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 1(1), pages 15-36.
- Anna McCord & Kate Wilkinson, 2009. "Assessing the Incidence of Public Works Programmes: Using Propensity Score Matching Techniques to Assess the Poverty Targeting of Employment in Two Public Works Programmes in South Africa," SALDRU Working Papers 31, Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town.
- Christian K.M. Kingombe, 2012. "The Linkage between Outcome Differences in Cotton Production and Rural Roads Improvements - A Matching Approach," IHEID Working Papers 12-2012, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Johannes Eugster).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.