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Globalization and Complementary Policies: Poverty Impacts on Rural Zambia

In: Globalization and Poverty

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  • Jorge F. Balat
  • Guido G. Porto

Abstract

In this paper, we have two main objectives: to investigate the links between globalization and poverty observed in Zambia during the 1990s, and to explore the poverty impacts of non-traditional export growth. We look at consumption and income effects separately. On the consumption side, we study the maize marketing reforms and the elimination of maize subsidies. We find that complementary policies matter: the introduction of competition policies at the milling industry acted as a cushion that benefited consumers but the restriction on maize imports by small-scale mills hurt them. On the income side, we study agricultural export growth to estimate income gains from international trade. The gains are associated with market agriculture activities (such as growing cotton, tobacco, hybrid maize) and rural labor markets and wages. We find that by expanding trade opportunities Zambian households would earn significantly higher income. Securing these higher levels of well-being requires complementary policies, like the provision of infrastructure, credit, and extension services.

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This chapter was published in:

  • Ann Harrison, 2007. "Globalization and Poverty," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number harr06-1, October.
    This item is provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Chapters with number 0115.

    Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberch:0115

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    References

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    1. Porto, Guido G., 2004. "Informal export barriers and poverty," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3354, The World Bank.
    2. Rajeev H. Dehejia & Sadek Wahba, 1998. "Propensity Score Matching Methods for Non-experimental Causal Studies," NBER Working Papers 6829, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Neil McCulloch & Bob Baulch & Milasoa Cherel-Robson, 2000. "Poverty, Inequality and Growth in Zambia during the 1990s," Econometrics 0004004, EconWPA.
    4. Brambilla, Irene & Porto, Guido, 2005. "Farm Productivity and Market Structure: Evidence from Cotton Reforms in Zambia," Working Papers 5, Yale University, Department of Economics.
    5. Deaton, Angus, 1989. "Rice Prices and Income Distribution in Thailand: A Non-parametric Analysis," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 99(395), pages 1-37, Supplemen.
    6. Deaton, Angus, 1990. "Price elasticities from survey data : Extensions and Indonesian results," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 281-309, June.
    7. Heckman, James J & Ichimura, Hidehiko & Todd, Petra, 1998. "Matching as an Econometric Evaluation Estimator," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 65(2), pages 261-94, April.
    8. Benjamin, Dwayne, 1992. "Household Composition, Labor Markets, and Labor Demand: Testing for Separation in Agricultural Household Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(2), pages 287-322, March.
    9. Heckman, James J & Ichimura, Hidehiko & Todd, Petra E, 1997. "Matching as an Econometric Evaluation Estimator: Evidence from Evaluating a Job Training Programme," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(4), pages 605-54, October.
    10. Julie Litchfield & Neil McCulloch, 2003. "Poverty in Zambia: Assessing the Impacts of Trade Liberalisation in the 1990s," PRUS Working Papers 16, Poverty Research Unit at Sussex, University of Sussex.
    11. L. Alan Winters & Neil McCulloch & Andrew McKay, 2004. "Trade Liberalization and Poverty: The Evidence So Far," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 42(1), pages 72-115, March.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:
    1. Christian K.M. Kingombe, 2012. "Regional Analysis of Eastern Province Feeder Road Project - District level estimation of the Poverty Alleviation Effects of Rural Roads Improvements in Zambia’s Eastern Province," IHEID Working Papers 10-2012, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies.
    2. Aisbett, Emma & Harrison, Ann & Zwane, Alix, 2006. "Globalization and poverty: what is the evidence?," MPRA Paper 36595, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Caroline Harper & Nicola Jones & Andy McKay, 2010. "Including Children in Policy Responses to Economic Crises," Working papers 1003, UNICEF,Division of Policy and Strategy.
    4. Bokosi, Fanwell Kenala, 2008. "SELLING OUR WAY INTO POVERTY: The Commercialisation of Poverty in Malawi," MPRA Paper 7087, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Balat, Jorge F. & Porto, Guido G., 2005. "The WTO Doha Round, cotton sector dynamics, and poverty trends in Zambia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3697, The World Bank.
    6. Brambilla, Irene & Porto, Guido G., 2006. "Farm productivity and marketstructure : evidence from cotton reforms in Zambia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3904, The World Bank.
    7. Christian K.M. Kingombe & Salvatore di Falco, 2012. "Labour Market and Fiscal Policy," IHEID Working Papers 04-2012, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies, revised 28 Feb 2012.
    8. Ann Harrison & Margaret McMillan, 2007. "On the links between globalization and poverty," Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 123-134, April.
    9. Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2010. "Financial deepening and poverty reduction in Zambia: an empirical investigation," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 37(1), pages 41-53, January.
    10. Diop, Ndiame & Brenton, Paul & Asarkaya, Yakup, 2005. "Trade costs, export development, and poverty in Rwanda," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3784, The World Bank.
    11. Ann Harrison, 2006. "Globalization and Poverty," NBER Working Papers 12347, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Irene Brambilla & Guido G. Porto, 2011. "Market structure, outgrower contracts, and farm output. Evidence from cotton reforms in Zambia," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 63(4), pages 740-766, December.
    13. Robinson, Peter & Govereh, Jones & Ndlela, Daniel, 2007. "Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Zambia," Agricultural Distortions Working Paper 48516, World Bank.
    14. Christian K.M. Kingombe, 2012. "The Linkage between Outcome Differences in Cotton Production and Rural Roads Improvements - A Matching Approach," IHEID Working Papers 12-2012, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies.

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