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Wages for Women and Publicly Financed Day Care

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Author Info

  • Lundholm, M.
  • Ohlsson, H.

Abstract

Public employment growth has been parallelled by increased female labour force participation, while real wages for typical female public sector occupations have not increased. In a theoretical model we, first, show that there is a tradeoff between day care provision and gross wages for occupations for which day care is a complement. It is possible to combine increased public labour demand with public day care provision leaving the wage unaffected. Second, non-parents will be in favour of increasing day care as long as day care productivity is higher than the inverse of the tax rate. This is because the effective labour supply and, therefore, the tax base increase. Third, parents want to push day care provision even further. They are prepared to accept a lower day care productivity than non-parents because day care provision relaxes the constraint on their desired labour supply. The Pareto efficient day care provision is between parents` and non-parents` preferred levels.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Uppsala - Working Paper Series in its series Papers with number 1995-23.

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Length: 28 pages
Date of creation: 1995
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:fth:uppaal:1995-23

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Postal: UPPSALA UNIVERSITY, DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS, S-751 20 UPPSALA SWEDEN.
Phone: + 46 18 471 25 00
Fax: + 46 18 471 14 78
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Web page: http://www.nek.uu.se/
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Keywords: WAGES; WOMEN; HEALTH;

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References

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  1. Blomquist, Suren & Christiansen, Vidar, 1995. " Public Provision of Private Goods as a Redistributive Device in an Optimum Income Tax Model," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 97(4), pages 547-67, December.
  2. Munro, Alistair, 1991. "The optimal public provision of private goods," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 239-261, March.
  3. Jacobson, Tor & Ohlsson, Henry, 1996. "Working Time, Employment, and Work Sharing: Evidence from Sweden," Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 135, Stockholm School of Economics.
  4. Kennan, John, 1979. "Bonding and the enforcement of labor contracts," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 61-66.
  5. Bergstrom, T. & Blomquist, S., 1993. "The Political Economy of Subsidized Day Care," Papers 93-30, Michigan - Center for Research on Economic & Social Theory.
  6. Neary, J.P & Roberts, K.W.S, 1978. "The Theory of Household Behaviour under Rationing," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 132, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  7. Siv Gustafsson & Frank P. Stafford, 1994. "Three Regimes of Child Care: The United States, the Netherlands, and Sweden," NBER Chapters, in: Social Protection versus Economic Flexibility: Is There a Trade-Off?, pages 333-362 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Munro, Alistair, 1992. "Self-Selection and Optimal In-Sind Transfers," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 102(414), pages 1184-96, September.
  9. Sherwin Rosen, 1997. "Public Employment, Taxes, and the Welfare State in Sweden," NBER Chapters, in: The Welfare State in Transition: Reforming the Swedish Model, pages 79-108 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Siv Gustafsson & Frank Stafford, 1992. "Child Care Subsidies and Labor Supply in Sweden," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 27(1), pages 204-230.
  11. Alessandro BALESTRINO, 1995. "Public Provision of Private Goods and User Charges," Discussion Papers (REL - Recherches Economiques de Louvain) 1995043, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
  12. Charles Michalopoulos & Philip K. Robins & Irwin Garfinkel, 1992. "A Structural Model of Labor Supply and Child Care Demand," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 27(1), pages 166-203.
  13. Gahvari, Firouz, 1994. "In-kind transfers, cash grants and labor supply," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 495-504, November.
  14. Gupta, Nabanita Datta, 1993. "Probabilities of Job Choice and Employer Selection and Male-Female Occupational Differences," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(2), pages 57-61, May.
  15. Cremer, Helmuth & Gahvari, Firouz, 1997. "In-kind transfers, self-selection and optimal tax policy," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 97-114, January.
  16. N. S. Blomquist & U. Hansson-Brusewitz, 1990. "The Effect of Taxes on Male and Female Labor Supply in Sweden," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(3), pages 317-357.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Domeij, David & Klein, Paul, 2010. "Should day care be subsidized?," Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 0729, Stockholm School of Economics.
  2. Casarico, Alessandra & Sommacal, Alessandro, 2008. "Labour Income Taxation, Human Capital and Growth: The Role of Child Care," CEPR Discussion Papers 7039, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Henry Ohlsson & Michael Lundholm, 2002. "Who takes care of the children? The quantity-quality model revisited," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 15(3), pages 455-461.
  4. Lundholm , Michael & Ohlsson , Henry, 2002. "Negative Externalities in Day Care: Optimal Tax Policy Response," Working Papers in Economics 68, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
  5. Zohal Hessami & Claudio Thum & Silke Uebelmesser, 2012. "A Political Economy Explanation for In-kind Redistribution: The Interplay of Corruption and Democracy," Working Paper Series of the Department of Economics, University of Konstanz 2012-25, Department of Economics, University of Konstanz.
  6. Ghazala Naz, 2004. "The impact of cash-benefit reform on parents’ labour force participation," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 17(2), pages 369-383, 06.
  7. Blomquist, S. & Christiansen, V., 1995. "Topping Up of Opting Out? The Optimal Design of Public Provision Schemes," Papers 1995-13, Uppsala - Working Paper Series.
  8. Blomquist, S. & Christiansen, V., 1998. "The Political Economy of Publicly Provided Private Goods," Papers 1998-14, Uppsala - Working Paper Series.
  9. Gustafsson, Bjorn & Kjulin, Urban & Schwarz, Brita, 2002. " Central-Local Government Relations in Transition: The Case of Swedish Child Care," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 110(3-4), pages 305-25, March.
  10. Junichi Minagawa & Thorsten Upmann, 2006. "Labor Supply and the Demand for Child Care: An Intertemporal Approach," CESifo Working Paper Series 1819, CESifo Group Munich.
  11. Brink, Anna & Nordblom, Katarina, 2005. "Child-care quality and fee structure: Effects on labor supply and leisure composition," Working Papers in Economics 157, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
  12. Alessandra Casarico & Alessandro Sommacal, 2014. "Taxation and Parental Time Allocation under Different Assumptions on Altruism," CESifo Working Paper Series 4690, CESifo Group Munich.

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