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Equilibrium Foreclosure and Complementary Products

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Author Info

  • Church, J.
  • Gandal, N.

Abstract

In this paper we address the possibility of horizontal foreclosure in markets for complementary services (software) where the consumption value of durables (hardware) depends on the availability of software. Horizontal foreclosure occurs when a hardware firm merges with a software firm and the integrated firm ceases to supply compatible software for a rival technology. We find that horizontal foreclosure can be an equilibrium outcome where both the merger and compatibility decisions are part of a multistage game which permits the foreclosed firm to play a number of counter-strategies. Moreover, foreclosure may result in monopolization of the hardware market. We find that the foreclosure equilibrium is inefficient: total surplus would be higher without foreclosure.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Calgary - Department of Economics in its series Papers with number 9303.

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Length: 30 pages
Date of creation: 1993
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:fth:calgar:9303

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Postal: THE UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY, DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS, 2500 UNIVERSITY DRIVE N.W. CALGARY ALBERTA CANADA T2N 1N4.
Phone: (403) 220-5857
Fax: (403) 282-5262
Web page: http://econ.ucalgary.ca/
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Keywords: computers ; economic theory;

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References

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Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
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  1. Whinston, Michael D, 1990. "Tying, Foreclosure, and Exclusion," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(4), pages 837-59, September.
  2. Salop, Steven C & Scheffman, David T, 1983. "Raising Rivals' Costs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(2), pages 267-71, May.
  3. Ordover, Janusz A & Saloner, Garth & Salop, Steven C, 1990. "Equilibrium Vertical Foreclosure," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(1), pages 127-42, March.
  4. Ordover, Janusz A & Saloner, Garth & Salop, Steven C, 1992. "Equilibrium Vertical Foreclosure: Reply," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(3), pages 698-703, June.
  5. Fudenberg, Drew & Tirole, Jean, 1984. "The Fat-Cat Effect, the Puppy-Dog Ploy, and the Lean and Hungry Look," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(2), pages 361-66, May.
  6. Ordover, Janusz A. & Saloner, Garth, 1989. "Predation, monopolization, and antitrust," Handbook of Industrial Organization, in: R. Schmalensee & R. Willig (ed.), Handbook of Industrial Organization, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 9, pages 537-596 Elsevier.
  7. Carbajo, Jose & de Meza, David & Seidmann, Daniel J, 1990. "A Strategic Motivation for Commodity Bundling," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(3), pages 283-98, March.
  8. G.F. Mathewson & R.A. Winter, 1984. "An Economic Theory of Vertical Restraints," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 15(1), pages 27-38, Spring.
  9. Hart, O. & Tirole, J., 1990. "Vertical Integration And Market Foreclosure," Working papers 548, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  10. Church, Jeffrey & Gandal, Neil, 1992. "Integration, Complementary Products, and Variety," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 1(4), pages 651-75, Winter.
  11. Krattenmaker, Thomas G & Salop, Steven C, 1986. "Competition and Cooperation in the Market for Exclusionary Rights," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 109-13, May.
  12. Reiffen, David, 1992. "Equilibrium Vertical Foreclosure: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(3), pages 694-97, June.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Church, Jeffrey & Gandal, Neil, 1996. "Strategic entry deterrence: Complementary products as installed base," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 331-354, September.
  2. Amisano, Franco & Cassone, Alberto, 2005. "Proprieta' intellettuale e mercati: Il ruolo della tecnologia e conseguenze microeconomiche," POLIS Working Papers 58, Institute of Public Policy and Public Choice - POLIS.
  3. Pehr-Johan Norbäck & Lars Persson & Joacim Tag, 2008. "Entrepreneurial Innovations in Network Industries," Working Papers 08-02, NET Institute.

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