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Why women are progressive in education?: Gender disparities in human capital, labor markets, and family arrangement in the Philippines

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  • Yamauchi, Futoshi
  • Tiongco, Marites

Abstract

This paper shows mutually consistent evidence to support female advantage in education and disadvantage in labor markets observed in the Philippines. We set up a model that shows multiple Nash equilibria to explain schooling and labor market behaviors for females and males. Our evidence from unique sibling data of schooling and work history and from the Philippine Labor Force Survey support that family arrangement to tighten commitment between daughters and parents keeps a high level of schooling investments in daughters. Because wage penalty to females in labor markets means that education is relatively important as a determinant of their earnings, parental investments in their daughters’ education has larger impacts on the income of their daughters than on their sons. Parents expect larger income shared from better-educated adult daughters. In contrast, males stay in an equilibrium, with low levels of schooling investment and income sharing.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in its series IFPRI discussion papers with number 1155.

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Date of creation: 2012
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Handle: RePEc:fpr:ifprid:1155

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Keywords: Gender; Education; Labor market; Family.;

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  1. Yamauchi, Futoshi & Liu, Yanyan, 2011. "Girls take over: Long-term impacts of an early stage education intervention in the Philippines," IFPRI discussion papers 1144, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  2. Dora L. Costa & Matthew E. Kahn, 2008. "Learning from the Past," NBER Chapters, in: Heroes and Cowards: The Social Face of War National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Tsai, Wehn-Jyuan & Liu, Jin-Tan & Chou, Shin-Yi & Thornton, Robert, 2009. "Does educational expansion encourage female workforce participation? A study of the 1968 reform in Taiwan," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 28(6), pages 750-758, December.
  4. Raghabendra Chattopadhyay & Esther Duflo, 2004. "Women as Policy Makers: Evidence from a Randomized Policy Experiment in India," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 72(5), pages 1409-1443, 09.
  5. Orbeta, Aniceto Jr. C., 2002. "Education, Labor Market, and Development: A Review of the Trends and Issues in the Philippines for the Past 25 Years," Discussion Papers DP 2002-19, Philippine Institute for Development Studies.
  6. Blau, Francine D & Kahn, Lawrence M, 1992. "The Gender Earnings Gap: Learning from International Comparisons," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(2), pages 533-38, May.
  7. Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Estudillo, Jonna P. & Otsuka, Keijiro, 2004. "Land and schooling," Food policy statements 41, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  8. Norbert R. Schady, 2003. "Convexity and Sheepskin Effects in the Human Capital Earnings Function: Recent Evidence for Filipino Men," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 65(2), pages 171-196, 05.
  9. Jere R. Behrman & Mark R. Rosenzweig, 2002. "Does Increasing Women's Schooling Raise the Schooling of the Next Generation?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(1), pages 323-334, March.
  10. Lanzona, Leonardo A., 1998. "Migration, self-selection and earnings in Philippine rural communities," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 27-50, June.
  11. Jonna P. Estudillo & JAgnes R. Quisumbing & JoKeijiro Otsuka, 2001. "Gender Differences in Land Inheritance and Schooling Investments in the Rural Philippines," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 77(1), pages 130-143.
  12. Strauss, John & Thomas, Duncan, 1995. "Human resources: Empirical modeling of household and family decisions," Handbook of Development Economics, in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 34, pages 1883-2023 Elsevier.
  13. Agnes Quisumbing & Scott McNiven, 2010. "Moving Forward, Looking Back: the Impact of Migration and Remittances on Assets, Consumption, and Credit Constraints in the Rural Philippines," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(1), pages 91-113.
  14. Yamauchi, Futoshi, 2005. "Why Do Schooling Returns Differ? Screening, Private Schools, and Labor Markets in the Philippines and Thailand," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 53(4), pages 959-81, July.
  15. Chris Sakellariou, 2004. "The use of quantile regressions in estimating gender wage differentials: a case study of the Philippines," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(9), pages 1001-1007.
  16. J. Estudillo & A. Quisumbing & K. Otsuka, 2001. "Gender Differences in Land Inheritance, Schooling and Lifetime Income: Evidence from the Rural Philippines," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(4), pages 23-48.
  17. Lai, Fang, 2010. "Are boys left behind? The evolution of the gender achievement gap in Beijing's middle schools," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 383-399, June.
  18. Mark M. Pitt & Shahidur R. Khandker, 1998. "The Impact of Group-Based Credit Programs on Poor Households in Bangladesh: Does the Gender of Participants Matter?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(5), pages 958-996, October.
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