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Exports, government size and economic growth (Evidence from Iran as a developing oil-export based economy)

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  • Dizaji, S.F.
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    Abstract

    In this study, I investigate the short run and long run effects of government size and exports on the economic growth of Iran as a developing oil export based economy for the period of 1974 to 2008. For this purpose I use the bounds testing approach to cointegration and error correction models, developed within an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) framework. A modified form of Ram’s (1986) model has been applied to include both government size and exports as determinants of economic growth in addition to labor force and capital. I use total exports, oil exports and non-oil exports respectively in three different equations to assess their effects on economic growth. Moreover, according to Armey curve(1995) in each of the equations I test the existence of non-linear relationship between government size and economic growth. My findings show that in all of the equations both in long run and short run the Armey curve is valid for Iranian economy, indicating that both a very big size and a too small size of government are harmful for growth and Iranian government should adjust its size (to have smaller size, compared to the average size over the period of this study) for obtaining higher rates of growth. The results show that total exports, the amount of oil exports in terms of barrels and oil prices could affect the economic growth positively and significantly both in short run and long run. However because of the weaknesses of the Iranian non-oil sectors, the non-oil exports could not have significant effects on growth in the long run. As a result of this study in the short run, Iran should try to attract foreign technologies and investments to develop the capacity and ability of its oil production. In the short run this can be a reliable factor for having the stable economy in comparison with relying on uncertain oil prices. In the long run Iran should use the oil revenues to improve its economic structure and invest on some non-oil sectors to diversify its non-oil exports. This can create new resources for government revenues and will reduce the dependence of the economy on Oil exports.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague in its series ISS Working Papers - General Series with number 535.

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    Date of creation: 27 Feb 2012
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    Handle: RePEc:ems:euriss:31594

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    Keywords: Iran; economic growth; government size; non-oil exports; oil exports; oil prices;

    References

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    1. Barro, R.J., 1988. "Government Spending In A Simple Model Of Endogenous Growth," RCER Working Papers 130, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
    2. Ram, Rati, 1987. "Exports and Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Evidence from Time-Series and Cross-Section Data," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 36(1), pages 51-72, October.
    3. Anaman, Kwabena A., 2004. "Determinants of economic growth in Brunei Darussalam," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 777-796, August.
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    7. Hadi Salehi Esfahani & Kamiar Mohaddes & M. Hashem Pesaran, 2009. "Oil Exports and the Iranian Economy," CESifo Working Paper Series 2843, CESifo Group Munich.
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    13. Aamer Abu-Qarn & Suleiman Abu-Bader, 2004. "The validity of the ELG hypothesis in the MENA region: cointegration and error correction model analysis," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(15), pages 1685-1695.
    14. Fajana, Olufemi, 1979. "Trade and growth: The Nigerian experience," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 73-78, January.
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    16. Ram, Rati, 1986. "Government Size and Economic Growth: A New Framework and Some Evidencefrom Cross-Section and Time-Series Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(1), pages 191-203, March.
    17. Abdullah Yavas, 1998. "Does too much government investment retard economic development of a country?," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 25(4), pages 296-308, September.
    18. Dar, Atul A. & AmirKhalkhali, Sal, 2002. "Government size, factor accumulation, and economic growth: evidence from OECD countries," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 24(7-8), pages 679-692, November.
    19. Ram, Rati, 1985. "Exports and Economic Growth: Some Additional Evidence," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(2), pages 415-25, January.
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    21. M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
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