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Long-Run Structural Modelling

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  • M Pesaran
  • Yongcheol Shin

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Abstract

The paper develops a general framework for identification, estimation, and hypothesis testing in cointegrated systems when the cointegrating coefficients are subject to (possibly) non-linear and cross-equation restrictions, obtained from economic theory or other relevant a priori information. It provides a proof of the consistency of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimators, establishes the relative rates of convergence of the ML estimators of the short-run and the long-run parameters, and derives their asymptotic distribution; thus generalizing the results already available in the literature for the linear case. The paper also develops tests of the over-identifying (possibly) non-linear restrictions on the cointegrating vectors. The estimation and hypothesis testing procedures are applied to an Almost Ideal Demand System estimated on U.K. quarterly observations. Unlike many other studies of consumer demand this application does not treat relative prices and real per capita expenditures as exogenously given.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Edinburgh School of Economics, University of Edinburgh in its series ESE Discussion Papers with number 44.

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Length: 30
Date of creation: Apr 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:edn:esedps:44

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Keywords: Cointegration; identification; testing non-linear restrictions; consistency; asymptotic distribution; Almost Ideal Demand Systems;

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  1. Pesaran, M Hashem, 1997. "The Role of Economic Theory in Modelling the Long Run," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 107(440), pages 178-91, January.
  2. Peter C.B. Phillips, 1988. "Optimal Inference in Cointegrated Systems," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 866R, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University, revised Aug 1989.
  3. Andrews, Donald W.K., 1992. "Generic Uniform Convergence," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(02), pages 241-257, June.
  4. Engle, Robert F & Granger, Clive W J, 1987. "Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 251-76, March.
  5. Potscher, Benedikt M. & Prucha, Ingmar R., 1994. "Generic uniform convergence and equicontinuity concepts for random functions : An exploration of the basic structure," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1-2), pages 23-63.
  6. Johansen, Soren, 1995. "Identifying restrictions of linear equations with applications to simultaneous equations and cointegration," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 111-132, September.
  7. Pashardes, Panos, 1993. "Bias in Estimating the Almost Ideal Demand System with the Stone Index Approximation," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 103(419), pages 908-15, July.
  8. Peter C.B. Phillips & Pierre Perron, 1986. "Testing for a Unit Root in Time Series Regression," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 795R, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University, revised Sep 1987.
  9. Saikkonen, Pentti, 1995. "Problems with the Asymptotic Theory of Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Integrated and Cointegrated Systems," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 11(05), pages 888-911, October.
  10. Pesaran, M. H. & Shin, Y. & Smith, R. J., 1997. "Structural Analysis of Vector Error Correction Models with Exogenous I(1) Variables," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9706, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  11. Peter C.B. Phillips, 1993. "Fully Modified Least Squares and Vector Autoregression," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1047, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  12. Deaton, Angus S & Muellbauer, John, 1980. "An Almost Ideal Demand System," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(3), pages 312-26, June.
  13. Donald W.K. Andrews, 1986. "Consistency in Nonlinear Econometric Models: A Generic Uniform Law of Large Numbers," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 790, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  14. Pesaran, M. H. & Smith, Ron P., 1998. "Structural Analysis of Cointegrating VARs," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9811, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  15. Michael R. Wickens & Roberto Motto, 2001. "Estimating shocks and impulse response functions," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 371-387.
  16. M. Hashem Pesaran & Ron P. Smith, 1998. "Structural Analysis of Cointegrating VARs," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(5), pages 471-505, December.
  17. Breusch, Trevor S, 1986. "Hypothesis Testing in Unidentified Models," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(4), pages 635-51, August.
  18. Anthony Garratt & Kevin Lee & M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin, 2003. "A Long run structural macroeconometric model of the UK," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 113(487), pages 412-455, 04.
  19. Saikkonen, Pentti, 1993. "Continuous Weak Convergence and Stochastic Equicontinuity Results for Integrated Processes with an Application to the Estimation of a Regression Model," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 9(02), pages 155-188, April.
  20. Anderson, Gordon & Blundell, Richard, 1983. "Testing Restrictions in a Flexible Dynamic Demand System: An Application to Consumers' Expenditure in Canada," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(3), pages 397-410, July.
  21. Johansen, Soren, 1991. "Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Cointegration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(6), pages 1551-80, November.
  22. Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
  23. Saikkonen, Pentti, 1993. "Estimation of Cointegration Vectors with Linear Restrictions," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 9(01), pages 19-35, January.
  24. Johansen, Søren & Juselius, Katarina, 1992. "Testing structural hypotheses in a multivariate cointegration analysis of the PPP and the UIP for UK," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1-3), pages 211-244.
  25. Marcus Chambers & K. Ben Nowman, 1997. "Forecasting with the almost ideal demand system: evidence from some alternative dynamic specifications," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(7), pages 935-943.
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