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Retail Environment and Manufacturer Competitive Intensity

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  • Draganska, Michaela

    (Stanford U)

  • Klapper, Daniel

    (Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitat)

Abstract

We study how the intensity of competition and the degree to which manufacturers enjoy market power depends on the retail environment in a given market. Past research has discussed the growing importance of retailers and the power they enjoy over manufacturers. Yet, the empirical literature to date has not determined which retail characteristics have the largest impact on competitive behavior. Our starting point is the estimation of a structural demand-and-supply model, where both consumers' decisions and the strategic interactions between manufacturers and retailers are explicitly modeled. We identify the type of competitive behavior of manufacturers by measuring the deviation from a Bertrand-Nash equilibrium. This measure of competitive conduct is expressed as a function of key retail characteristics such as size of the retailer, its assortment depth, and category expertise. We illustrate the proposed approach using data for the ground coffee category in Germany. Our findings indicate that retail characteristics have indeed a significant effect on competitive intensity among upstream firms and on their ability to exercise market power. Hence, a manufacturer considering entry into a new market should not only take into account its competitors but also the specifics of the retail environment in this market.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Stanford University, Graduate School of Business in its series Research Papers with number 1953.

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Date of creation: Dec 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ecl:stabus:1953

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References

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  1. Narasimhan, Chakravarthi & Wilcox, Ronald T, 1998. "Private Labels and the Channel Relationship: A Cross-Category Analysis," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 71(4), pages 573-600, October.
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  3. Trichy Krishan & Kitty Koelemeijer & Ram Rao, 2002. "Consistent Assortment Provision and Service Provision in a Retail Environment," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 21(1), pages 54-73, April.
  4. Aviv Nevo, 2000. "Mergers with Differentiated Products: The Case of the Ready-to-Eat Cereal Industry," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 31(3), pages 395-421, Autumn.
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  7. Slade, Margaret E, 1995. "Product Rivalry with Multiple Strategic Weapons: An Analysis of Price and Advertising Competition," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 4(3), pages 445-76, Fall.
  8. Sanjay K. Dhar & Stephen J. Hoch, 1997. "Why Store Brand Penetration Varies by Retailer," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 16(3), pages 208-227.
  9. Vrinda Kadiyali & Pradeep Chintagunta & Naufel Vilcassim, 2000. "Manufacturer-Retailer Channel Interactions and Implications for Channel Power: An Empirical Investigation of Pricing in a Local Market," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 19(2), pages 127-148, September.
  10. Rajiv Lal & Chakravarthi Narasimhan, 1996. "The Inverse Relationship Between Manufacturer and Retailer Margins: A Theory," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 15(2), pages 132-151.
  11. Cotterill, Ronald W & Putsis, William P, Jr & Dhar, Ravi, 2000. "Assessing the Competitive Interaction between Private Labels and National Brands," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73(1), pages 109-37, January.
  12. Severin Boreinstein & Andrea Shepard, 1996. "Dynamic Pricing in Retail Gasoline Markets," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 27(3), pages 429-451, Autumn.
  13. Venkatesh Shankar & Ruth N. Bolton, 2004. "An Empirical Analysis of Determinants of Retailer Pricing Strategy," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 23(1), pages 28-49, May.
  14. Berry, Steven & Levinsohn, James & Pakes, Ariel, 1995. "Automobile Prices in Market Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 63(4), pages 841-90, July.
  15. Koen Pauwels & Shuba Srinivasan, 2004. "Who Benefits from Store Brand Entry?," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 23(3), pages 364-390, July.
  16. S. Chan Choi, 1991. "Price Competition in a Channel Structure with a Common Retailer," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 10(4), pages 271-296.
  17. Paul R. Messinger & Chakravarthi Narasimhan, 1995. "Has Power Shifted in the Grocery Channel?," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 14(2), pages 189-223.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Villas-Boas, Sofia B, 2006. "An empirical investigation of the welfare effects of banning wholesale price discrimination," CUDARE Working Paper Series 1017R3, University of California at Berkeley, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Policy, revised Oct 2008.
  2. Bonnet, Céline & Dubois, Pierre & Villas Boas, Sofia B., 2009. "Empirical Evidence on the Role of Non Linear Wholesale Pricing and Vertical Restraints on Cost Pass-Through," IDEI Working Papers 565, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse, revised Sep 2011.
  3. Draganska, Michaela & Klapper, Daniel & Villas-Boas, Sofia B., 2008. "A larger slice or a larger pie? : an empirical investigation of bargaining power in the distribution channel," CUDARE Working Paper Series 1046, University of California at Berkeley, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Policy.
  4. Draganska, Michaela & Klapper, Daniel & Villas-Boas, Sofia B., 2007. "Determinants of Margins in the Distribution Channel: An Empirical Investigation," Research Papers 1959, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
  5. Villas-Boas, Sofia B, 2007. "Using retail data for upstream merger analysis," CUDARE Working Paper Series 1030, University of California at Berkeley, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Policy.
  6. Richards, Timothy J. & Acharya, Ram N. & Molina, Ignacio, 2009. "Retail and Wholesale Market Power in Organic Foods," 2009 Annual Meeting, July 26-28, 2009, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 49329, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  7. William Allender & Timothy Richards, 2010. "Market Diversion and Market Power: California Eggs," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 36(1), pages 37-58, February.
  8. Richards, Timothy J. & Hamilton, Stephen F., 2011. "Variety and Cost Pass-Through among Supermarket Retailers," 2011 International Congress, August 30-September 2, 2011, Zurich, Switzerland 114815, European Association of Agricultural Economists.

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