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Intra- and Inter-Format Competition Among Discounters and Supermarkets

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  • Cleeren, Kathleen
  • Dekimpe, Marnik G.
  • Gielens, Katrijn
  • Verboven, Frank

Abstract

The price-aggressive discount format, popularized by chains such as Aldi and Lidl, is very successful in most Western economies. Its success is a major source of concern for traditional supermarkets. Discounters not only have a direct effect on supermarkets’ market shares, they also exert considerable pressure to improve operational efficiency and/or to decrease prices. We use an empirical entry model to study the degree of intra- and inter-format competition between discounters and supermarkets. Information on the competitive impact of new entrants is derived from the observed entry decisions of supermarkets and discounters in a large cross-section of local markets, after controlling for a number of local market characteristics. In our modeling framework, we endogenize the retailers’ entry decisions, and allow for asymmetric intra- and inter-format competitive effects in a flexible way. We apply our modeling approach to the German grocery industry, where the discount format has stabilized after two decades of continued growth. We find evidence of intense competition within both the supermarket and discounter format, although competition between supermarkets is found to be more severe. Most importantly, discounters only start to affect the profitability of conventional supermarkets from the third entrant onwards. This may explain why many retailers rush to add a discount chain to their portfolio: early entrants may benefit from the growth of the discount-prone segment without cannibalizing the profits of their more conventional supermarket stores.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers in its series CEPR Discussion Papers with number 6964.

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Date of creation: Sep 2008
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Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:6964

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Keywords: empirical entry models; hard discounters; supermarket competition;

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References

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Zhijun Chen & Patrick Rey, 2010. "Loss Leading as an Exploitative Practice," Working Papers hal-00540724, HAL.
  2. Antonis Michis & Anna Markidou, 2013. "Determinants of retail wine prices: evidence from Cyprus," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 267-280, August.
  3. Loy, Jens-Peter & Holm, Thore & Steinhagen, Carsten & Glauben, Thomas, 2014. "Cost Pass-Through In Differentiated Product Markets: A Disaggregated Study For Milk And Butter," 88th Annual Conference, April 9-11, 2014, AgroParisTech, Paris, France 169762, Agricultural Economics Society.
  4. Hoffman, Angela & Senkler, Heike, 2011. "Interformat price competition of multi-product retailers: Evidence for German grocery retailing," 2011 International Congress, August 30-September 2, 2011, Zurich, Switzerland 114533, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
  5. Holm, Thore & Loy, Jens-Peter & Steinhagen, Carsten, 2012. "Bio Auch Bei Der Preissetzung: Konsummilch In Deutschland," 52nd Annual Conference, Stuttgart, Germany, September 26-28, 2012 137159, German Association of Agricultural Economists (GEWISOLA).
  6. Loy, Jens-Peter & Holm, Thore & Steinhagen, Carsten, 2012. "Vertical Price Transmission In Differentiated Product Markets: A Disaggregated Study For Milk And Butter," 2012 Annual Meeting, August 12-14, 2012, Seattle, Washington 123284, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  7. Olivier Coibion & Yuriy Gorodnichenko & Gee Hee Hong, 2012. "The Cyclicality of Sales, Regular and Effective Prices," IMF Working Papers 12/207, International Monetary Fund.
  8. Olivier Coibion & Yuriy Gorodnichenko & Gee Hee Hong, 2012. "The Cyclicality of Sales, Regular and Effective Prices: Business Cycle and Policy Implications," NBER Working Papers 18273, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Gayle, Philip & Luo, Zijun, 2012. "Choosing between Order-of-Entry Assumptions in Empirical Entry Models: Evidence from Competition between Burger King and McDonald’s Restaurant Outlets," MPRA Paper 51259, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Sep 2013.
  10. Widenhorn, Andreas & Salhofer, Klaus, 2012. "Price sensitivity within and across retail formats," Congress Papers 124108, Italian Association of Agricultural and Applied Economics (AIEAA).

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