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Panel Unit Root Tests in the Presence of Cross-Sectional Dependency and Heterogeneity

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  • Yoosoon Chang

    ()
    (Department of Economics, Rice University)

  • Wonho Song

    (Department of Economics, Rice University)

Abstract

An IV approach, using as instruments nonlinear transformations of the lagged levels, is explored to test for unit roots in panels with general dependency and heterogeneity across cross-sectional units. We allow not only for the cross-sectional dependencies of innovations, but also for the presence of cointegration across cross sectional levels. Unbalanced panels and panels with differing individual short run dynamics and cross-sectionally related dynamics are also permitted. Panels with such cross-sectional dependencies and heterogeneities appear to be quite commonly observed in practical applications. Yet none of the currently available tests can be used to test for unit roots in such general panels. We also more carefully formulate the unit root hypothesis in panels. In particular, using order statistics we make it possible to test for and against the presence of unit roots in some of the individual units for a given panel. The individual IV t-ratios, which are the bases of our tests, are asymptotically normally distributed and cross-sectionally independent. Therefore, the critical values of the order statistics as well as the usual averaged statistic can be easily obtained from simple elementary probability computations. We show via a set of simulations that our tests work well, while other existing tests fail to perform properly. As an illustration, our tests are applied to some of the data sets that were used in earlier studies.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by International Conferences on Panel Data in its series 10th International Conference on Panel Data, Berlin, July 5-6, 2002 with number B5-2.

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Date of creation: Mar 2002
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Handle: RePEc:cpd:pd2002:b5-2

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Keywords: Panels with cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity; unit root test; cointegration; covariate; nonlinear instrument; order statistics;

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References

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  1. Yoosoon Chang, 2000. "Bootstrap Unit Root Tests in Panels with Cross-Sectional Dependency," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 1585, Econometric Society.
  2. Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002. "Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
  3. Park, Joon Y & Phillips, Peter C B, 2001. "Nonlinear Regressions with Integrated Time Series," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(1), pages 117-61, January.
  4. Oh, Keun-Yeob, 1996. "Purchasing power parity and unit root tests using panel data," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 405-418, June.
  5. Park, Joon Y. & Phillips, Peter C.B., 1999. "Asymptotics For Nonlinear Transformations Of Integrated Time Series," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 15(03), pages 269-298, June.
  6. Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003. "Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
  7. Papell, David H., 1997. "Searching for stationarity: Purchasing power parity under the current float," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(3-4), pages 313-332, November.
  8. Hansen, Bruce E., 1995. "Rethinking the Univariate Approach to Unit Root Testing: Using Covariates to Increase Power," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 11(05), pages 1148-1171, October.
  9. Frankel, Jeffrey A & Rose, Andrew K, 1995. "A Panel Project on Purchasing Power Parity: Mean Reversion Within and Between Countries," CEPR Discussion Papers 1128, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  10. Yoosoon Chang, 2000. "Nonlinear IV Unit Root Tests in Panels with Cross-Sectional Dependency," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-85, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
  11. Yoosoon Chang & Joon Y. Park & Peter C.B. Phillips, 1999. "Nonlinear Econometric Models with Cointegrated and Deterministically Trending Regressors," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1245, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  12. repec:cup:etheor:v:11:y:1995:i:5:p:1148-71 is not listed on IDEAS
  13. Peter C.B. Phillips & Victor Solo, 1989. "Asymptotics for Linear Processes," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 932, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  14. Yoosoon Chang & Joon Y. Park, 1999. "Nonstationary Index Models," Working Paper Series no7, Institute of Economic Research, Seoul National University.
  15. Badi H. Baltagi & Chihwa Kao, 2000. "Nonstationary Panels, Cointegration in Panels and Dynamic Panels: A Survey," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 16, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
  16. Banerjee, Anindya, 1999. " Panel Data Unit Roots and Cointegration: An Overview," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 607-29, Special I.
  17. Peter C.B.Phillips & Donggyu Sul, 2002. "Dynamic Panel Estimation and Homogeneity Testing Under Cross Section Dependence," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1362, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  18. MacDonald, Ronald, 1996. "Panel unit root tests and real exchange rates," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 7-11, January.
  19. Choi, In, 2001. "Unit root tests for panel data," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 249-272, April.
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Cited by:
  1. Hwang, Min & Quigley, John M. & Son, Jae Young, 2006. "The Dividend Pricing Model: New Evidence from the Korean Housing Market," Berkeley Program on Housing and Urban Policy, Working Paper Series qt293422vk, Berkeley Program on Housing and Urban Policy.
  2. Chang, Yoosoon, 2003. "Nonlinear IV Panel Unit Root Tests," Working Papers 2003-06, Rice University, Department of Economics.
  3. Syed A. Basher & Josep Lluís Carrion-i-Silvestre, 2007. "Another Look at the Null of Stationary RealExchange Rates. Panel Data with Structural Breaks and Cross-section Dependence," IREA Working Papers 200710, University of Barcelona, Research Institute of Applied Economics, revised May 2007.
  4. Yoosoon Chang, 2004. "Taking a New Contour: A Novel Approach to Panel Unit Root Tests," Econometric Society 2004 Far Eastern Meetings 796, Econometric Society.
  5. Martin Wagner & Jaroslava Hlouskova, 2004. "What's Really the Story with this Balassa-Samuelson Effect in the CEECs?," Diskussionsschriften dp0416, Universitaet Bern, Departement Volkswirtschaft.
  6. Helmut Herwartz & Hans-Eggert Reimers, 2006. "Long-Run Links among Money, Prices and Output: Worldwide Evidence," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 7, pages 65-86, 02.
  7. David Harris & Steve Leybourne & Brendan McCabe, 2003. "Panel Stationarity Tests with Cross-sectional Dependence," Econometrics 0311005, EconWPA.

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