Market Experimentation in a Dynamic Differentiated-Goods Duopoly
AbstractWe study the evolution of prices in a symmetric duopoly where firms are uncertain about the degree of product differentiation. Customers sometimes perceive the products as close substitutes, sometimes as highly differentiated. Firms learn about their competitive environment from the quantities sold and a background signal. As the information of the market outcomes increases with the price differential, there is scope for active learning. In a setting with linear demand curves, we derive firms' pricing strategies as payoff-symmetric mixed or correlated Markov perfect equilibria of a stochastic differential game where the common posterior belief is the natural state variable. When information has low value, firms charge the same price as would be set by myopic players, and there is no price dispersion. When firms value information more highly, on the other hand, they actively learn by creating price dispersion. This market experimentation is transient, and most likely to be observed when the firms' environment changes sufficiently often, but not too frequently.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE in its series STICERD - Theoretical Economics Paper Series with number 369.
Date of creation: Jul 1999
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/_new/publications/default.asp
Duopoly experimentation; Bayesian learning; stochastic differential game; Markov-perfect equilibrium; mixed strategies; correlated equilibrium.;
Other versions of this item:
- Godfrey Keller & Sven Rady, 1999. "Market experimentation in a dynamic differentiated-goods duopoly," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 19346, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Godfrey Keller & Sven Rady, 1998. "Market Experimentation in a Dynamic Differentiated-Goods Duopoly," Game Theory and Information 9810001, EconWPA, revised 20 Aug 1999.
- D83 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Search, Learning, and Information
- C73 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Game Theory and Bargaining Theory - - - Stochastic and Dynamic Games; Evolutionary Games
- D43 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure and Pricing - - - Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Reinganum, Jennifer F, 1979.
"A Simple Model of Equilibrium Price Dispersion,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(4), pages 851-58, August.
- Salop, Steven & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1977.
"Bargains and Ripoffs: A Model of Monopolistically Competitive Price Dispersion,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(3), pages 493-510, October.
- Steven Salop & Joseph Stiglitz, 1977. "Bargains and ripoffs: a model of monopolistically competitive price dispersion," Special Studies Papers 94, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Dirk Bergemann & Juuso Valimaki, 1997.
"Market Diffusion with Two-Sided Learning,"
RAND Journal of Economics,
The RAND Corporation, vol. 28(4), pages 773-795, Winter.
- Slade, Margaret E, 1989. "Price Wars in Price-Setting Supergames," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 56(223), pages 295-310, August.
- Mirman,Leonard & Samuelson,Larry & Urbano,Amparo, .
"Duopoly signal jamming,"
Discussion Paper Serie B
199, University of Bonn, Germany.
- Aghion, P. & Espinoza, M.P. & Jullien, B., 1990.
"Dynamic Duopoly With Learning Through Market Experimentation,"
DELTA Working Papers
90-13, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
- Aghion, Philippe & Espinosa, Maria Paz & Jullien, Bruno, 1993. "Dynamic Duopoly with Learning through Market Experimentation," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 3(3), pages 517-39, July.
- Jullien Bruno & Aghion Philippe & Paz Espinoza M, 1990. "Dynamic duopoly with learning through market experimentation," CEPREMAP Working Papers (Couverture Orange) 9012, CEPREMAP.
- Harrington Jr. , Joseph E., 1995. "Experimentation and Learning in a Differentiated-Products Duopoly," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 275-288, June.
- Patrick Bolton & Christopher Harris, 1999. "Strategic Experimentation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 67(2), pages 349-374, March.
- Rob, Rafael, 1991. "Learning and Capacity Expansion under Demand Uncertainty," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(4), pages 655-75, July.
- Kenneth Burdett and Melvyn G. Coles, .
"Steady State Price Distributions in a Noisy Search Equilibrium,"
Economics Discussion Papers
450, University of Essex, Department of Economics.
- Burdett, Kenneth & Coles, Melvyn G., 1997. "Steady State Price Distributions in a Noisy Search Equilibrium," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 72(1), pages 1-32, January.
- Diamond, Peter, 1987.
"Consumer Differences and Prices in a Search Model,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 102(2), pages 429-36, May.
- Rothschild, Michael, 1974. "A two-armed bandit theory of market pricing," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 185-202, October.
- Godfrey Keller & Sven Rady, 1998.
"Optimal Experimentation in a Changing Environment,"
Game Theory and Information
- Fishman, Arthur & Rob, Rafael, 1998.
"Experimentation and Competition,"
Journal of Economic Theory,
Elsevier, vol. 78(2), pages 299-320, February.
- Arthur Fishman & Rafael Rob, . "Experimentation and Competition," Penn CARESS Working Papers b530e9a0ad08e45aeff62efaf, Penn Economics Department.
- Arthur Fishman & Rafael Rob, . ""Experimentation and Competition''," CARESS Working Papres 97-12, University of Pennsylvania Center for Analytic Research and Economics in the Social Sciences.
- Dirk Bergemann & Juuso Valimaki, 1996. "Market Experimentation and Pricing," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1122, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Mirman Leonard J. & Samuelson Larry & Schlee Edward E., 1994.
"Strategic Information Manipulation in Duopolies,"
Journal of Economic Theory,
Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 363-384, April.
- Mirman, L.J. & Samuelson, L. & Schlee, E.E., 1992. "Strategic Information Manipulation in Duopolies," Working papers 9210, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
- Mirman, L.J. & Samuelson, L. & Schlee, E.E., 1991. "Strategic Information Manupulation in Duopolies," Papers 9137, Tilburg - Center for Economic Research.
- Mirman, L.J. & Samuelson, L. & Schlee, E.E., 1991. "Strategic information manipulation in duopolies," Discussion Paper 1991-37, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- McLennan, Andrew, 1984. "Price dispersion and incomplete learning in the long run," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 331-347, September.
- Chamley, Christophe & Gale, Douglas, 1994.
"Information Revelation and Strategic Delay in a Model of Investment,"
Econometric Society, vol. 62(5), pages 1065-85, September.
- Gale, D. & Chamley, C., 1992. "Information Revelation and Strategic Delay in a Model of Investment," Papers 10, Boston University - Department of Economics.
- Caplin, Andrew & Leahy, John V, 1993. "Sectoral Shocks, Learning, and Aggregate Fluctuations," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(4), pages 777-94, October.
- Christopher Harris, 1993.
"Generalized Solutions of Stochastic Differential Games in One Dimension,"
0044, Boston University - Industry Studies Programme.
- Harris, C., 1993. "Generalized Solutions of Stochastic Differential Games in One Dimension," Papers 44, Boston University - Industry Studies Programme.
- Michael H. Riordan, 1985. "Imperfect Information and Dynamic Conjectural Variations," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 16(1), pages 41-50, Spring.
- Burdett, Kenneth & Judd, Kenneth L, 1983. "Equilibrium Price Dispersion," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(4), pages 955-69, July.
- Felli, Leonardo & Harris, Christopher, 1996. "Learning, Wage Dynamics, and Firm-Specific Human Capital," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(4), pages 838-68, August.
- Dirk Bergemann & Juuso Valimaki, 1999.
"Entry and Innovation in Vertically Differentiated Markets,"
Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers
1226, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Dirk Bergemann & Juuso Valimaki, 1999. "Entry and Innovation in Vertically Differentiated Markets," Discussion Papers 1260, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
- Heski Bar-Isaac, 2001.
"Self-confidence and survival,"
LSE Research Online Documents on Economics
19329, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Dirk Bergemann & Juuso Valimaki, 2000.
"Entry and Vertical Differentiation,"
Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers
1277, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.