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INCREMENTOS DEL SALARIO MÍNIMO LEGAL: ¿cuál es el impacto redistributivo del cambio en los precios relativos al consumidor?

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  • Francisco Javier Lasso Valderrama

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    Abstract

    En Colombia como en otros países en desarrollo, el Salario Mínimo Legal (SML) se utiliza como una política de ayuda a los pobres. Del lado de la producción, en la distribución factorial del ingreso, si el SML está por encima del precio de equilibrio hay una transferencia hacia los trabajadores que son remunerados por el SML. Del otro lado, como consumidores, si la población remunerada por el SML adquiere bienes y servicios que en su producción incorporan una alta participación de esta mano de obra, o aún más, destinan una gran proporción de su salario en la compra de estos bienes y servicios, pueden salir desfavorecidos antes que favorecidos por una política de ayuda a través de incrementos del SML. En este documento se investiga el efecto de los incrementos del SML sobre los precios al consumidor final por niveles de ingreso, utilizando el Índice de Precios al Consumidor (IPC) y la información sobre el mercado laboral de las encuestas de hogares del DANE. Para las principales trece áreas metropolitanas del país, por un incremento del 10% en el SML se encuentra un aumento anual de 0.61% en el nivel de precios al consumidor con una baja incidencia del SML sobre la población ocupada. Este efecto es regresivo respecto a la distribución del ingreso dado que el aumento mayor lo sufre la población del estrato de ingresos bajos, en menor magnitud la población de ingresos medios, mientras los precios que enfrenta la población de ingresos altos no experimentan aumentos. Si se agrupa la población por quintiles y deciles, según su nivel de ingreso per cápita, la distribución del impacto toma la forma de campana de Gauss, pero sigue siendo regresivo, afectando en mayor grado los hogares con ingresos bajos respecto a los de ingresos altos.

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    Paper provided by Banco de la Republica de Colombia in its series Borradores de Economia with number 598.

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    Handle: RePEc:bdr:borrec:598

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    Keywords: Distribución del ingreso; Nivel de precios; Inflación; Salarios; Salario Mínimo. Classification JEL: D31; E31; J32; J38;

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