Accounting for Heterogeneity in Hedging Behavior: Comparing & Evaluating Grouping Methods
AbstractHeterogeneity, i.e., the notion that individuals respond differently to economic stimuli, can have profound consequences for the interpretation of behavior and the formulation of agricultural policy. This paper compares and evaluates three grouping techniques that can be used to account for heterogeneity in financial behavior. Two are well established: company-type grouping and cluster analysis. A third, the generalized mixture regression model, has recently been developed and is worth considering as market participants are grouped such that their response to the determinants of economic behavior is similar. We evaluate the grouping methods in a hedging framework by assessing their ability to reflect relationships consistent with theory. The empirical findings show that the economic relationships are more consistent with theory within the groups identified by the mixture model, and suggest that researchers interested in identifying segments of the population in which participants behave in a similar manner may consider using of mixture model in the presence of heterogeneity in financial behavior.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by European Association of Agricultural Economists in its series 2011 International Congress, August 30-September 2, 2011, Zurich, Switzerland with number 114787.
Date of creation: 02 Aug 2011
Date of revision:
economic behavior; heterogeneity; hedging; methods; Risk and Uncertainty; A10; B40; C1; D0; G0; L2; Q13;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- A10 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics - - - General
- B40 - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology - - Economic Methodology - - - General
- C1 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General
- D0 - Microeconomics - - General
- G0 - Financial Economics - - General
- L2 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior
- Q13 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Markets and Marketing; Cooperatives; Agribusiness
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Wayne DeSarbo & William Cron, 1988. "A maximum likelihood methodology for clusterwise linear regression," Journal of Classification, Springer, vol. 5(2), pages 249-282, September.
- Pennings, Joost M. E. & Garcia, Philip, 2004. "Hedging behavior in small and medium-sized enterprises: The role of unobserved heterogeneity," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 951-978, May.
- Geczy, Christopher & Minton, Bernadette A & Schrand, Catherine, 1997. " Why Firms Use Currency Derivatives," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(4), pages 1323-54, September.
- Mian, Shehzad L., 1996. "Evidence on Corporate Hedging Policy," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 31(03), pages 419-439, September.
- Joost M.E. Pennings & Ale Smidts, 2000. "Assessing the Construct Validity of Risk Attitude," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 46(10), pages 1337-1348, October.
- Colin Cameron, A. & Windmeijer, Frank A. G., 1997. "An R-squared measure of goodness of fit for some common nonlinear regression models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 329-342, April.
- John C. Williams, 2011.
"The economic outlook,"
84, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
- Joost M.E. Pennings & Philip Garcia, 2001. "Measuring Producers' Risk Preferences: A Global Risk-Attitude Construct," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 83(4), pages 993-1009.
- Nance, Deana R & Smith, Clifford W, Jr & Smithson, Charles W, 1993. " On the Determinants of Corporate Hedging," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(1), pages 267-84, March.
- Herrendorf, Berthold & Valentinyi, Akos & Waldmann, Robert, 2000. "Ruling Out Multiplicity and Indeterminacy: The Role of Heterogeneity," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 67(2), pages 295-307, April.
- James J. Heckman, 2001. "Micro Data, Heterogeneity, and the Evaluation of Public Policy: Nobel Lecture," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 109(4), pages 673-748, August.
- Michel Wedel & Wayne DeSarbo, 1995. "A mixture likelihood approach for generalized linear models," Journal of Classification, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 21-55, March.
- Deirdre N. McCloskey & Stephen T. Ziliak, 1996. "The Standard Error of Regressions," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 34(1), pages 97-114, March.
- Froot, Kenneth A & Scharfstein, David S & Stein, Jeremy C, 1993.
" Risk Management: Coordinating Corporate Investment and Financing Policies,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 48(5), pages 1629-58, December.
- Kenneth A. Froot & David S. Scharfstein & Jeremy C. Stein, 1992. "Risk Management: Coordinating Corporate Investment and Financing Policies," NBER Working Papers 4084, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Caselli, G & Ventura, J, 1996.
"A Representative Consumer Theory of Distribution,"
534, Harvard - Institute for International Development.
- Peter Tufano, 1998. "The Determinants of Stock Price Exposure: Financial Engineering and the Gold Mining Industry," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(3), pages 1015-1052, 06.
- Williams,Jeffrey C., 1990. "The Economic Function of Futures Markets," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521389341, October.
- Joost M.E. Pennings & Raymond M. Leuthold, 2000. "The Role of Farmers' Behavioral Attitudes and Heterogeneity in Futures Contracts Usage," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 82(4), pages 908-919.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.