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The Effects of Derivatives on Firm Risk and Value

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  • Bartram, Söhnke M.
  • Brown, Gregory W.
  • Conrad, Jennifer

Abstract

Using a sample of 6,888 non-financial firms from 47 countries, we examine the effect of derivative use on firms’ risk measures and value. We control for endogeneity by matching users and non-users on the basis of their propensity to hedge. We also use a new technique to estimate the effect of omitted variable bias on our inferences. We find strong evidence that the use of financial derivatives reduces both total risk and systematic risk. The effect of derivative use on firm value is positive but weak, and is more sensitive to endogeneity and omitted variable concerns. This increased sensitivity could account for the mixed evidence in the literature on the effect of hedging on firm value.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Cambridge University Press in its journal Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis.

Volume (Year): 46 (2011)
Issue (Month): 04 (September)
Pages: 967-999

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Handle: RePEc:cup:jfinqa:v:46:y:2011:i:04:p:967-999_00

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  1. Nance, Deana R & Smith, Clifford W, Jr & Smithson, Charles W, 1993. " On the Determinants of Corporate Hedging," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(1), pages 267-84, March.
  2. Zhong Zhao, 2004. "Using Matching to Estimate Treatment Effects: Data Requirements, Matching Metrics, and Monte Carlo Evidence," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(1), pages 91-107, February.
  3. Kevin Grant & Andrew P. Marshall, 1997. "Large UK Companies and Derivatives," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 3(2), pages 191-208.
  4. Gregory W. Brown & Peter R. Crabb & David Haushalter, 2006. "Are Firms Successful at Selective Hedging?," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(6), pages 2925-2950, November.
  5. DiPrete, Thomas A. & Gangl, Markus, 2004. "Assessing bias in the estimation of causal effects: Rosenbaum bounds on matching estimators and instrumental variables estimation with imperfect instruments," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Labor Market Policy and Employment SP I 2004-101, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
  6. Bartram, S.M., 2000. "Corporate Risk Management as a Lever for Shareholder Value Creation," Papers 00-58, Southern California - School of Business Administration.
  7. Jennifer Koski & Jeffrey Pontiff, 1996. "How Are Derivatives Used? Evidence from the Mutual Fund Industry," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 96-27, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  8. John R. Graham & Clifford W. Smith, 1999. "Tax Incentives to Hedge," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(6), pages 2241-2262, December.
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  10. Geczy, Christopher & Minton, Bernadette A & Schrand, Catherine, 1997. " Why Firms Use Currency Derivatives," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(4), pages 1323-54, September.
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  13. Hentschel, Ludger & Kothari, S. P., 2001. "Are Corporations Reducing or Taking Risks with Derivatives?," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 36(01), pages 93-118, March.
  14. John R. Graham & Daniel A. Rogers, 2002. "Do Firms Hedge in Response to Tax Incentives?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(2), pages 815-839, 04.
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  16. Hayne E. Leland., 1998. "Agency Costs, Risk Management, and Capital Structure," Research Program in Finance Working Papers RPF-278, University of California at Berkeley.
  17. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
  18. Smith, Clifford W. & Stulz, René M., 1985. "The Determinants of Firms' Hedging Policies," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(04), pages 391-405, December.
  19. Sohnke M. Bartram & Gregory W. Brown & Frank R. Fehle, 2003. "International Evidence on Financial Derivatives Usage," Finance 0307003, EconWPA, revised 24 Jul 2003.
  20. Kenneth A. Froot & David S. Scharfstein & Jeremy C. Stein, 1992. "Risk Management: Coordinating Corporate Investment and Financing Policies," NBER Working Papers 4084, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Allayannis, George & Lel, Ugur & Miller, Darius P., 2012. "The use of foreign currency derivatives, corporate governance, and firm value around the world," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 65-79.
  2. Bartram, Söhnke M. & Brown, Gregory W. & Stulz, René M., 2012. "Why are U.S. Stocks More Volatile?," MPRA Paper 47341, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Mohamed Mnasri & Georges Dionne & Jean-Pierre Gueyie, 2013. "The Maturity Structure of Corporate Hedging: the Case of the U.S. Oil and Gas Industry," Cahiers de recherche 1337, CIRPEE.
  4. Chang, Feng-Yi & Hsin, Chin-Wen & Shiah-Hou, Shin-Rong, 2013. "A re-examination of exposure to exchange rate risk: The impact of earnings management and currency derivative usage," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 3243-3257.
  5. José Eduardo Gómez González & Carlos Eduardo León Rincón & Karen Julieth Leiton Rodríguez, 2009. "Does the Use of Foreign Currency Derivatives Affect Colombian Firms´ Market Value?," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 005514, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
  6. Yip, Wing Hung & Nguyen, Hoa, 2012. "Exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign currency derivatives in the Australian resources sector," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 151-167.
  7. Cornaggia, Jess, 2013. "Does risk management matter? Evidence from the U.S. agricultural industry," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(2), pages 419-440.
  8. Aretz, Kevin & Bartram, Söhnke M., 2009. "Corporate Hedging and Shareholder Value," MPRA Paper 14088, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  9. Kapitsinas, Spyridon, 2008. "The Impact of Derivatives Usage on Firm Value: Evidence from Greece," MPRA Paper 10947, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  10. Gay, Gerald D. & Lin, Chen-Miao & Smith, Stephen D., 2011. "Corporate derivatives use and the cost of equity," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 1491-1506, June.

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